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Online Education BLOG

 

 

A partire dall'aprile 2020 Prashantji ha iniziato a registrare e rendere disponibili sul canale Youtube IyengarYoga Officiauna serie di lezioni "Online Education in Yoga".

Il progetto relativo alla trascrizione traduzione delle lezioni è illustrato nella News Letter#Aprile n.3/2021.

Di seguito i link alle lezioni caricate su Youtube, con la sinossi della lezione per enuclearne i punti essenziali e quando già realizzata  la trascrizione e l'eventuale traduzione in italiano.

 


Lezione 1

Sinossi

In questa lezione impariamo come gli āsana non sono semplici posizioni e come ciascun āsana ha un effetto specifico su corpo, respiro e mente. Vediamo anche come gli āsana sviluppano interazioni tra corpo, mente e respiro, e come ciascuna di queste tre componenti agisce sulle altre, in una relazione di reciproca collaborazione e assistenza. La posizione del corpo ha un effetto sulla mente e sul respiro, e allo stesso tempo il respiro e la mente possono essere utilizzati per portare attenzione al corpo. Ci si può dunque rivolgere in modo specifico a corpo, mente o respiro. Profonde e consapevoli inspirazioni ed espirazioni possono generare effetti diversi, così come il respiro può anche essere confinato in specifiche aree, come testa, torace, regione pelvica. Quindi si può immaginare la profonda conoscenza che si può ottenere attraverso la pratica dello yoga. L’ultima parte della lezione è invece dedicata agli aspetti immunitari, sui quali si può agire nel lungo periodo e non dall’oggi al domani, e a come testa e addome hanno un importante ruolo a riguardo.

In this lesson, we learn that asanas are not merely postures and how each asana has a specific effect on the body, the breath and the mind; asanas bring about the interactions between the body, mind and breath; and how each of these three act on the other, work on the other; they interact with each other and assist each other. The body position has an effect on the mind and breath while the the breath and mind can also be used to address the body.So, we can specifically address the body, the mind or the breath. Mindful profound inhalations and exhalations can have a different effect; The breath can also be confined to specific areas like the head, the chest or the abdomen pelvic. So one can imagine the profound knowledge that one can get through the practice of yoga. The latter part of the lesson speaks about the immunity aspect which cannot be gained overnight but how the head and abdomen play a role in it.

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Trascrizione della lezione 

 

Libretto 

 


Lezione 2

Sinossi

Yoga is a subject about education about oneself. it is a mirror for understanding oneself. We are supposed to be knowers of the ksetra [field] which is our sarira [very loosely translated as body]. The body in this case is not what the anatomists and physiologists study. It includes the gross [sthula], sukshma [subtle] and karana [causal]. Yoga is a pursuit to know our embodiment which has several layers from the annamaya, pranamaya, monamaya, vijnanamaya and finally the anandamaya. On the grosser plane, our embodiment is the body, mind and breath. We have to study how they interact, interplay and interface with each other. He then guides us practically in an asana on how to have a profound interaction between the body, mind and breath so that we no longer DO yoga but yoga happens on us!

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Trascrizione della lezione

 

Libretto 

 


Lezione 3

Sinossi

The third lesson in this series talks about how one evolves from doing a posture to a yogasana. A posture only involves body culture but in a yogasana, the breath and mind are involved. It is no longer about doing yoga but the interactions, associations between body, mind and breath in an asana - you become a witness - that brings one closer to the core of yoga. So asana is NOT a posture - although that is a lose translation.

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Trascrizione della lezione

 

Libretto 

 

 


Lezione 4

Sinossi

This lesson reveals how Patanjali did not suggest moral-ethical norms to be followed, nor did he suggest that they are the first step to yoga. Then, why has Patanjali mentioned Yama and Niyama? Are they moral-ethical principles? In the Darshanic convention, there is an ‘āchār-dharma-nīti-praṇāli'. Not only yama and niyama, but the entire aṣṭanga yoga is an ‘āchār-dharma-nīti-praṇāli', which may be termed in English as 'ethico-religious practices'. Have yama-niyama to be practised only when out in society and not while one is practicing the other limbs of aṣṭanga yoga, like āsana, prāṇāyāma, dhārṇa, dhyāna? We need to understand the yama-niyama and how they manifest in āsana, prāṇāyāma, dhyāna, japa etc. Hence they are ‘āchār-dharma-nīti-praṇāli'’. Achār is conduct, nīti is ethics. But, dharma is not to be understood as religion. Religion needs the faith of mankind to sustain. It cannot survive if nobody believes in it. Dharma does not need faith or following. It is that which sustains us. “Dharma is that which supports, sustains and upholds one who is falling, one who has fallen, one who is about to fall, one who may fall.” B.K.S.Iyengar. Philosophy and tattvajnana will divulge reality but dharma will make us realise realities. There are different types of dharma for all creatures big and small as well as for inert matter. Guṇa dharma, svabhāva dharma, niyata dharma, vihita dharma; so also there are different karmas like vihita karma, niyata karma ect. All creatures have dharma but they do not have a religion. Dharma is duty-mindedness. Q:What is the difference between karma & dharma? A: Karma is what you do and dharma is what you should do. They are a weave. Karma never leaves us and dharma should never leave us.

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Lezione 5

Sinossi

This lesson has two topics. First there is a deeper understanding of yama and niyama as vows or anushthana and not just moral-ethical principles. Second, he explains what is meditation expounding on dynamic meditation of Guruji B.K.S.Iyengar’s yogic practices.

1. We are critical, and tend to assess people in their morality and ethicality, while we deem ourselves that we are morally, ethically strong. If somebody is a good person, it does not mean that the person has not taken a vow to be good; the person is merely good. Patanjali embarks upon the topic of vratas or vows, either atomic vows or great vows. We are aware only of yoga practices. We think this is something to be practiced and we don’t give any framework of anushtha. Whereas Patanjali in his text speaks of anushthanam, In the II:28 sutra of ashtanga yoga he says ‘yogangaanushthanat’.

2. Meditation has become a fashion. Everyone wants to get meditation, but no one wants to know what is meditation. Guruji often said that his yoga is dynamic meditation. How can the asanas or Iyengar yoga that is being practiced, be a dynamic meditation? Because usually meditation means sitting quiet, relaxed, and then closing the eyes and doing something as meditation. Absolute thoughtlessness will not be meditation. Also, every thought will not culminate in a meditative state. Yogic subject matter is the best subject matter, to be going for meditativity. So, there is a thinker, there is thinking, there is a thought. Thought about the thought is the component of the meditativity. Iyengar Yoga is not dynamic meditation, Iyengar’s yoga was dynamic meditation. It was his yoga which was meditation, because yogasanas, are a wonderful condition to enter into the academy of meditativity. What is a point doing a Sirsasana which is perfect to look at, by hook or crook? The instrumentation should be proper. So that should be under scrutiny. In meditativity you get reflections. Like if you swallow a psychedelic pill, psychedelic drug, you don’t need a thought scheme, for you to have that psychedelic state. But asana is not a psychedelic pill, that you get that state sublime state. It is autogenically turned out, biochemically turned out, electrochemically turned out. So there is always the thought process, which is why in asanas, the precept of activity process and thought process is introduced. Meditation is not dhyana. Dhyana is a wider concept, meditation is a component of it.

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Lezione 6

Sinossi

In this lesson there is a delineation of how the concept of hiṁsā stands differently from the way it is understood in the social context. With regards to moral-ethical principles, the hiṁsā is on another person. Hence it is interpersonal. However, with regards to oneself even in our yoga practices, it becomes intrapersonal because it is hiṁsā on oneself. For eg., according to Guruji when we do our asana we are committing hiṁsā. Not that we are ferocious like wild beasts; rather this hiṁsā is to be understood at a different level. It could be hiṁsā by us on our body or the mind or even by the mind. The statement that dharma is that which sustains man is opened out. This statement is explained by reference to the Dharma Shastra Grantha which mentions that sustenance by dharma will be in proportion of 1:100. If a wee bit is done by us, dharma will sustain us with a huge hundred-fold bounty bounty; ‘dharmo rakshatiye rakshitah’. Dharma also gives ‘abhyudaya’, enrichment. Further, it is explained how ‘dharma-adharma’ is not to be equated with ‘pāpa-puṇya’. Dharma for one person may not be the dharma for another person. Dharma has a personal reference. Therefore, dharma is ‘nīti-mimāṁsā' Essential yoga commences when the seeker has karma consciousness from the dharma point of view. Any activity becomes right when the motive, intention is right. In our yoga practices, the dynamics are more important, not just the activity. At the end of the lesson, the virtues of sūrya namas̍kāra are considered, also making it clear that yoga is not sūrya namas̍kāra and the two should not be mixed up. Sūrya namas̍kāra does not fulfill the criteria of 'sthira sukham āsanam' hence it is not yoga.

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Lezione 7

Sinossi

When ethical principles are applied to others in society, they have a different fabric; they are considered as moral-ethical principles. But in a condition where one is practising āsanas or even prānāyāma, these no longer remain moral-ethical principles, they become nīti dharma for us. In such condition, we sometimes have a strong moral motivation and sometimes not. For eg., what will you call hiṁsā in āsana and what will you call ahiṁsā in āsana? It becomes different in prānāyāma, what would be called as hiṁsā in pranayama would be different from what you call as hiṁsā in āsana. There is the emphasis on truthfulness in āsanas, truthfulness in pranayama, truthfulness in other practices of yoga. Later, there is an explanation of how in the basic structuring of āsanas there are 2 processes: 1.There is the activity process and 2.There is thought process. Āsanas are a weave of activity process and thought process therefore they are wonderful fields to carry out this kind of study where there will be a thought about the thought, thought about the thinker, thought about the thinking. There is a discussion about thoughts with meditative potentials and thoughts without. Further there is an interesting reflection on what is meditation, what could be a necessary support system for meditation as well as its relation to thought and svādhyaya. And we get an insight into how, for Guruji, every asana would become a mirror; the mirror reflecting thought, mirror reflecting thinking, mirror reflecting thinker. How, in dynamic meditation, we are not just trying to perfect, carve and sculpt the posture. We need to go beyond. We will go beyond that into yogāsana. Finally, postures are not yoga, postures are not āsanas.

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Lezione 8

Sinossi

This lesson aims to highlight how postures are not yoga. Postures are major requisition for asanas, however they are not asanas by themselves. This is a practical lesson. A practical aspect is involved here where the listener is asked to get into any asanic position. Eg., Sirsasana or Bharadwajasana etc.. Now, how does the yoga commence here? By connecting between one part of the body and other parts of the body, each and every part of the body with every other part of the body. Also, the breath will work differently, rather than, just working as a respiratory process. In associated conditions with the breath and body, try to understand how the mind works. So, this is an aspect of education, and each one has to get educated in the realm of their own embodiment. The yoga here, comes for us in the form of getting connected, there is much to observe. For example, the spinal column becomes like an observatory, to observe the body, mind, breath interactions, interplays. So in an asana we are creating an observatory. You are structuring your mind, mindset, consciousness, when you go through different phases of asanas. Try to become aware of the activity weave, the activity thread in the weave and a thought thread in the weave. As a matter of fact, the thought fabric is more important for you to be graduating in your asana. Now, in the realm of thought, see the potential for you to be meditating. Asanas give you a wonderful condition to have clarity with respect to these three dimensions, to study, identify and then study what is thought, what is thinking and what is thinker. In this very practical class he teaches how activity of body, mind, breath, is not absence of hiṁsā, asatya, asteya, abramacharya , parigraha, but rather leads to a presence of their antagonisers: the s̍at sampattis. So in asanas you are evolving saintly potentials, godly potentials. That’s a yogic mind. If you look into Guruji’s small booklet on yogic mind, so you will understand how yogic mind can be turned out from what you are doing. There is Samudra Manthan in the microcosm through yoga. So all noble qualities will surface.

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Lezione 9

Sinossi

The highlight here is on how in morality, for the practice of the 5 different yamas there will be a need to have different practices. For example, we may practice morally, ahimsa, but may not practice satya, and not necessarily practise asteya. But that is not the case of ethico religious principles. If you are ethico religiously in ahimsā, you won’t be violating satya, you won’t be violating asteya, you won’t be violating brahmacharya or aparigraha. You cannot say “I am in ahimsā, but not in satya”, I am in ahimsa but not in asteya. The Sādhana for all the five yamas and niyamas and later even āsana, praṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dharana, dhayana, samadhi is nothing but a build-up of sattva guṇa, build-up of the essence. So that is why it is called satsanga. Satsanga is satva sanga, santasanga, satyasanga. Here there is a practical involvement where we are asked to get into any āsana which can be performed keeping the brain as the centre of awareness. We can collect the thought material, which can escalate, into the processes of pensivity, reflectivity, meditativity. Understand the adhyatmic proposition, ‘Know the knower’. The knowledge process; what do I know, how do I know? Who is the knower? Who is the knowing entity, instrumental entity? There needs to be a knowledge process rather than a doing process. The precept that is put forth in this lesson is, that there are meditativity potentials in asanas because of how the thought matter changes, thought content changes, thinking process changes, thinker’s profile changes. So we should start developing literacy for this. This is an important component of yogāsana; the knowledge process. There is enormous material for the triad, which is considered in meditation: the Thinker, thinking and thought. There is thought of the thought, there is thought of thinking, about the thinking, there is thought about the thinker. That is how there are meditativity potentials in āsanas because of this process. The question, ‘what would the āsanas do beyond something physical and something spiritual?’ has been answered with special reference to the term spiritual, with reference to the term adhyātma.

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Lezione 10

Sinossi

This lessons starts with emphasis on the understanding that meditation is not dhyana. The meditation that is being discussed is dynamic meditation and dynamic meditation is one of the prerequisites of meditative practices. Dynamic meditation is where the higher faculty functions of the brain have to come in. It involves the use of higher faculty functions which we don’t need in our normal walk of life. Guruji’s practices were dynamic meditative practices and it was his hierarchy. Ordinary persons are not capable of that. There is a further reference to classification of thoughts and an invitation to analysis of thoughts; reflective thoughts, opaque thoughts, transparent thoughts, translucent thoughts, etc. and then understand their relation/contribution to meditation. Meditation requires qualification. Dhyana is a wider concept and does not need any qualification. In Patanjali’s three-fold scheme of dhyana, dhyana is a stotra, a mantra, a japa. Japa is a need. Like we take supplements for our body just because we need it and not because our body likes it, so also the suks̍ma s̍arira, the astral body needs japa and nām smaranam. Different between mano vṛtti and citta vṛtti is expounded. Question about different types of thoughts is explained concluding that only reflective thoughts are suitable for meditation. A final note that dhyāna on a personal deity has nothing to do with religion but rather to do with a reverential icon which will give noble thoughts.

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Lezione 11

Sinossi

Continuing from lesson 10 regarding thought matter in āsanas, here there is expounding of kriyā. An adhyātmik act is by kāyā(body), vācha(speech) and manasa(mind), and here, the vācha or speechly act is very important. This session brings out the utmost need to have a vācha kriya in yoga practices. The listener is urged to assume a posture and have a silent commentary on the body-mind-breath interactions. This will become the vāchika kriya. The crystalisation of thoughts will lead to a knowledge process, to understanding concepts. This will give literacy of yoga and its dynamics. A discussion is launched about the vṛttis of pramana-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidra-smriti in the wakeful state, where they are all mano-vṛttis and not c̣itta -vṛttis. The speaker explains how yoga is not about restraining the mind but rather be in yoga so that the mind gets restrained. Yoga is about being in the internal world, about c̣itta -vṛtti, but most practitioners look at it the other way round. It is like placing the cart before the horse. The analogy of the ocean is given to understand c̣itta and mind. C̣itta is like the ocean whereas the manas is just like a pond from that ocean. The pond can freeze and only a few may be affected. But if the whole ocean freezes, the entire planet will be affected! Vṛttis in the internal realm are for you and ‘yours’ in you. This requires for us to enter a different portal into the fascinating world of vṛttis. Finally, there is the clarification that restraining a tormented mind is not yoga. That can even be done by taking some medication, some psychiatric drugs. What is the need for yoga? So, yoga is about the c̣itta which is an internal plane.

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Lezione 12

Sinossi

This lesson is an introduction to a formal understanding of dhyana. Patanjali yoga sutras don’t mention meditation. The word there is dhyana and should be maintained as a technical term. Example of water in vessel and water in the ocean is used. In a vessel, water remains as it is. Ocean will have tides, tsunamis, glories and riches. All these are a part of the ocean. Likewise, dhyāna is the ocean and meditation is a small phenomenon in the ocean of dhyāna. Dhyāna is like open architecture. When mind is in disarray, meditation is not possible But dhyāna is. When we are able to lift the mind from a sub-stacy, unsteady, bizzare state it can be dhyāna. It can be talking to someone, listening to a particular voice, voice plus content matter, even a thought; all of this can also mitigate turbulence of the mind. That is one kind of dhyāna. Kles̍as may not torment but kles̍a vṛttis can. They vex and torment. We can be explosive, get burnt, parched. So any measure that is taken to mitigate manage or lessen it, is fit to be called dhyāna. But not those measures which are not acceptable to yoga like alcohol. So, to lift the mind from sub-normal to normal state, certain acceptable measures are qualified and available. Taking mind from normal plane to higher plane is also another kind of dhyāna. It will sublimate the mind. Could be a piece of music, a perception, a thought, an interaction with a revered person, etc. Patanjali sutra, ‘ Yathā abhimata dhyānātvā’. Dhyāna is not a qualification. It is an imperative. Dhyāna is a must. Something within us needs a form of dhyāna No qualifications are required and there is no measure of success of failure in dhyāna. Dhyāna is imperative for a human being, to be a good human being. When hunger and thirst needs to be satisfied, we eat anything that is edible. Likewise, when tormented, everyone needs some type of dhyāna. Not any specific kind of dhyāna.

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Lezione 13

Sinossi

This lesson differentiates between want and need.
Dhyāna is a must for all and all need it whether they want or not. Example, we may not want to take a bitter pill because we don’t like it, but we take it because we need it. Sometimes even if we don’t need something we take it or do it to satisfy others in the family, in society.
There is a discourse on understanding the body, its aspects and its needs.
According to scientists, 90-95 percent of the brain is not mapped. But so also it is with the body. 
Linguists say the word anatomy has come from the Sanskrit ‘anātmīya’ i.e, that which is not-soul.
Human embodiment has 3 aspects; Sthula s̍arira, karana s̍arira, suksma s̍arira.
We know what the gross body (sthula s̍arira) needs, what treatments to give it. But do we know what the subtle body (suks̍ma s̍arira) needs? Specially in the realm of yoga we need to take a different care of it. 
The measure for treatment of subtle body which is also called astral of electronic body is japa. Japa of praṇava and other mantras. There are so many different japas and they can be done in so many ways. Japa is dhyāna.
Prashantji then expounds the word indriya. Our embodiment is made of indriyas. Our body organs are indriyas. They are all an absolute marvel. Our dhyana and japa will serve these indriyas which are deities. Modern human being may consider it a waste of time but actually, it satisfies the need of these marvels in us. Taking example of castor oil, though we don't like it, want it, but our colon needs it, relishes it. Hence we take it. 
So also for dhyana and japa. Our subtle body needs it and will benefit by it.

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Lezione 14

Sinossi

In this lesson the magnanimity of adhyātma s̍astra is opened, looking into the adibhautik, adidaivik and adhyātmic aspects. Since meditation is not possible for everyone, there is a need for non-meditative dhyāna.

Three kinds of dhyāna are explained:

1. That which lifts the mind from a sub-normal state to a normal state. 
2.The one that takes a mind on a normal plane to a higher plane.
3.The kind of meditation mentioned by Patañjali of aṣṭānga yoga, which is dhyāna in the form of meditation.
 Since prāṇāyāma is considered to be the gateway for such dhyāna (prayaya ekatānāta), this lesson does not qualify to discuss this third type, here, since pranayama has not been discussed at all.
Giving the example of a seed, Prashantji explains how, just as all the qualities of the tree are encapsulated in the seed, so also, the subtle body is the container of the seeds of our body and mind  matters. This subtle body contains the seeds of not only this embodiment, but the seeds of all 8.4 million life species in potential form. It is all reduced to nominal condition which can be actualised and we can take any of these forms because of our karmas.
Human being is not human being but rather contains all life forms of 8.4 million. This technology in us is smaller than even nano; ultra nano! Cannot even be seen under the most powerful microscope.
All these are like guests in us and need to be fed. Japa is their food; the food for the subtle body, the indriyas, the deities residing there. So, though we may not like to take the ‘nāma’, we need to do it for them. They need to be nurtured. Subtle body (suks̍ma s̍arīra) needs the dhyāna in form of japa. Bhāgwat Purana defies it as “japor dhyanam”. Japa of ‘nāma’; name of divinity, God, personal deity.
 Samādhi is for the causal body (kāraṇa s̍arīra). If samādhi is not possible, the nurturing will happen in sus̍upti (deep sleep). Just going into a good sleep will also nourish the kāraṇa s̍arīra.
We are manifestations in adhibhautik form, constitutions of adhidaivik form and adhyātmik form is the substrate. The elements in our body manifest as adhibhautik, which is the manifestation of the 5 elements in a subtle form.
Finally, he explores the concept of adhi yagnya, which is the presence of divinity within us.

 
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Lezione 15

Sinossi

This lesson is dedicated to questions by viewers. Questions are a very required process in the education process.
1.Need to understand the importance of questioning; why someone has questions and someone has no questions; why some have questions and do not ask; why some don’t have questions yet they ask!
A whole Upanis̍ad is dedicated to questions, Pras̍nopanisad of Shankaracharya. Her he asks, “why does someone ask a question?
2.With regards to dharma and karma a question is asked about destiny. Prashantji explains that in karma siddhānta there is no place for fatalism. But it appears so to the common thinker and even to some philosophes. This is discussed with reference to verse 47 of chapter 2 of the Bhagwad Gita: ‘karmanevadikaraste…….’.
3.Another question is answered about the place/importance of ‘preraṇā’ in the knowledge process. ‘Preraṇā’ can be a kick-starter but cannot take you further than that. 
4.Question that the whole jargon about thought, thinker and thinking can be just intellectual gymnastics? He answers that it could very well be so, if you carry out this exercise in a classroom or seated on your sofa at home. But in the practise of yoga it is not gymnastics, because we get into kneaded conditions. It is about cellular intelligence where any part of the body can become a cerebral organ. The proficient practitioner will be able to know this.
5.Question on s̍avāsana and meditation, that mediation is done just to relax. Well, relaxation is not the summum bonum of human endeavour. Wisdom is. So meditation cannot be for relaxation. With reference to Guruji’s teachings, he opens and explores the concept or ‘relaxation’.
6.Question about difference and non-difference between mind and c̣itta. The answer follows with the analogy of water of the ocean and water in a glass. C̣itta is like the ocean whereas mind is limited, like the water in the glass.
7.Question about linga s̍arīra and Sāṁkhya kārikā.  He answers that the Sāṁkhya kārikā does not give much description of suks̍ma and ling s̍arīra. Yogic texts and vedantic text will explain it.
 
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Lezione 16

Sinossi

This is a Q & A session
Q1. If moral-ethical practices are for social reference, don’t we need to practice them within us since we have a society within us?
A. We don’t need them in the internal realm because though we have a society of trillions of cells, it is integral to us. Inside there is no condition of semblance, there would be no need for ethical restraints. In external society there is huge semblance and we wear different masks. Hence the moral-ethical practices are needed in society. Hence ethico-religious principles are needed within.
Q2. What is pratipaksha bhavna?
A. When moral-ethical principles are violated on the practical plane, we have no remorse for it. We even justify it. But if a vow (vrata) is taken and violated, there is a prick in our conscience. We don’t justify. We feel remorse. There is self admonishment. That is pratipaksha bhavana.
Q3. Do astrological factors really influence us? If karma or destiny is there, what is the role of astrology?
A.In fact, they are a force to recon with. These are ādidaivic aspects. The bhogās will fructify because of astrological conditions. Eg., sometimes even success comes at an unsuitable time, we can’t enjoy it so much. So what is this point in time? That is astrology. Bhogās will work in full-fledged manner if it happens at the right time. 
Q4.  In āsanas, how do we recognise which is the benefactor and which is beneficiary?
A.That which works as the instrument, becomes the beneficiary. Eg., legs working for spine or breath working for you to climb a hill, they are the beneficiaries.  When you sit and recover, the breath becomes the benefactor. The one who gets the benefit is benefactor.
Q5. How many kapālabhātis to practice at a time?
A.Before you try kapālabhāti, you must first learn and practice uddiyāna kriyā and uddiyāna mudrā. Then agnisār kriyā. Then kapālabhāti.  Learn and practice these kriyās in various āsanic positions. Texts teach how to do but don’t teach how to learn these. Hence we must attempt to learn. Number is not fixed nor important.
Q6. You say yoga is not for everyone, but dhyāna is for everyone. Needs no qualification. Why?
A.Yoga is not for one and all, but there is something in yoga for one and all. Dhyāna is not meditation. Hence all can do. There are different types of dhyāna. Dhyāna of the yogi is the third type of dhyāna which requires qualifications which comes after prāṇāyāma and pratyāhāra.
 
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Lezione 17

Sinossi

This lesson gives Introduction to vāchika kriyā with a practical involvement of āsana practice.
There is explanation of  
a) 3 kinds of karmas: kāyika, vāchika, mānasika karmas.
b) 3 insruments are used for karmas: body, speech and mind organs.
Explanation is given how oral organ is not just for speech. There is the internal role of the speech organ within us. There should be involvement in the act of commentating. Identifying actions, the responses, the resistances, the assistances, the reactions and having participation, and not just doing. If we understand the dynamics of āsanas, the act of commentating will get us better involved in our practise.
There is the disclosure that āsanas are not actions but, they are negotiations. The eg. of driving a car is given. Driving involves negotiating. Likewise, for āsanas. They are to be driven and negotiated. Then we might get better results. 
Learning the skills of silent speech must be practiced, just as we need to learn for skills of spoken speech. Articulation brings matter for thought. Vāchika kriya has its own backup of intelligence. 
The 4 speeches according to Panini’s system and adhyātma have been expounded upon. 
They are, parā, pas̍yanti, madhyamā & vaikhari. Of the 4 speeches, one underlies the other. 
Vaikhari is the gross and express speech and underlying it is madhyama. This is explained with a reference to the vis̍uddhi c̣akra. Pas̍yanti is at the locus of the heart. Parā is located at the navel region.
All thought does not become silent speech. Many thoughts come and go. That is not within our control. But silent speech will help us make resolutions. It is silent oration. It is your controlled thought process, not only coming from mind but also including speech.
Kriyās for essential āsanas are explained. Prāṇa, tattva, c̣akra kriyās are all based on the vāchika kriyā, the oratory act. Speech organ is indispensable here.
Practical experience is offered in āsana using sound forms of different vowels while inhaling or exhaling.
Finally, about the magical system called the prānic system.

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Lezione 18

Sinossi

This lesson has a major practical component.
It is about :
1.Understanding how the organ of speech has a great control over the mind. Mind digresses because it has great force. The oral act controls digression of the mind. The mind is drawn in from 3 dimensions: As one reads, the eyes are involved; loud recitation involves the tongue and engages the ears. In Indian tradition we have pathana-pāthana, not only engaging the mind but also developing the voice culture with proper intonation of speech. One can pretend to be noble in thought and speech to others, but when we use internal speech, we know very well the lack of nobility. There is a s̍ānti mantra which says, ‘let my mind be established in speech and let my speech be established in my mind.” Merits will be scored when we talk the walk and walk the talk.

2.It also drives home the lesson of activating before exercising. It is not logical that we want to exercise before we activate. This applies to the lungs too. It is foolish to try to exercise the breath without first knowing how to activate it.

3. In the practical part of this lesson, performing s̍āvasana, there is education of watching the breath and breathing with interrupted inhalations, the process of respiration is observed to activate the lungs and chest, learning to ‘read’ the breath.
4.Understanding the prānic system.
5. Practicing prāna kriyās and learning the fact that no pranayama is possible without them. Vāchika kriyā is implemented by performing the prāna kriyās. This is done by silently uttering vowels during inhalations and exhalations. A reference is given to how Guruji used these in his teaching without calling them sound forms, but rather using the language of the body so all could understand. A formula is revealed for a pattern of prāṇakriya.
6.Praṇāyāma as the charmer of the kundalini by prāṇakriya.
7.Praṇāyāma is amantrak or samantrak.
If amantrak then it must use the svara vyanjana which are the 51 letters or sound forms or S̍akti peethas. The Aks̍o Upanishad divulges these. Aks̍a means indestructible. They are the seed of all creation (like the big bang theory).

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Lezione 19

Sinossi

This master session has a practical component teaching the understanding of vācha(speech) as the most important component of yogic practices.

  • Addressing the topic of vāchika kriyā in vaikhari which is expressed speech, we understand that oration can happen only in exhalative process.
  • 4 planes of speech and their locations in the body are shown.
  • Combination of vaikhari and madhyamā speech is tried as a practical lesson by chanting the letters of the ekāks̍ara mantra ‘aum’
  • Explaination of kāma pītha and vāsana granthi are given; granthis are knots; the triad of passion knots, emotional knots and ego knots are to be loosened and worked on; vāyu kriya and prāna kriyas are to be performed.
  • Advantage of Indian languages over English is explained.
  • The concept of sonography is related to the working of sound in our body.
  • Some dwelling on Panini’s vyakarana and the theory of ‘sphotavada’ is done explaining how just a few letters can give us millions and millions of words, then forming statements and verses.
  • Reference to the Akshamāla Upanis̍ad is made.
  • Only human race has the system which can produce so many sounds and also have them as silent speech.
  • Those who have education in music will understand the value of the vocal organ
  • The esoterics of āsanas are explained with reference to prāṇa, c̣akra and tattva kriyās.
  • When practising vāchika kriyās, the least benefit will be that you will remain out of mental and vocal mischief for that much time at least. The greater benefits are many more.
  • Delineation on Universe and not multiverse; Cosmos, not chaos.
  • With prāna kriyās and nāma a lot of virtues can be accumulated.
  • Referring to the Bhagwad Gitā and Jñānes̍war, we are told how yogis make their vācha as a vedas̍āla. 
  • Finally, there is an explanation why Sarswati resides on the tongue.

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Lezione 20

Sinossi

Lesson sets off with the thought that in the current age of kaliyuga, there is a lot of discouragement for dharma because the ways of the world are wicked. Struggling for material success one finds no time or space for collecting virtues.
Some persons may be old or feeble and don’t have fit bodies to collect virtues with virtuous acts. Often, the mind being treacherous is also an unfit instrument for virtuous acts. At all such time, there is no need to get disappointed. Vācha comes very handy. Great merits can be collected by vāchika karma which includes vedic chanting, reading gospels of saints and sages, reading philosophical texts, singing kirtana and japa.
Japa is mentioned by Patañjali in many places. In 1st chapter, the japa sūtra; in 2nd chapter, the kriyayoga sutra; and in 2nd chapter the niyama sūtra.
Nāma sankīrtanam̄ and nāma smaraṇaṁ are also vācika kriyās. Using different mantras will also create virtue. Vyāsa at the end of Dvapar yuga beseeches that the best instrument for kaliyug is simply to take the 'nām', name of divinity.
There is an explanation about the role of the senses differentiating sensory act and sensely acts. This is indriyām kriyā. A limb of aṣṭānga yoga is dedicated to this called pratyāhāra. The senses have a hot-line or a direct corridor to the mind. They can disturb the mind in an instant. So to work on c̣itta, we must first work on the mind. In the worldly plane, the senses work as ‘bhogendriyās’. We make them ‘sukhaprāptendriyas’. But on the internal realm they become wisdom organs, ‘jñānendriyās’.
An elaborate explanation follows about the various ‘pre-fixes’ to the word ‘jñāna’ to understand its purport.
A practical experience follows of understanding the role of the senses with ‘tādāsana’:
a)How should the eyes ‘see’
b)How should the nostrils ‘breathe’
c)How should the ears ‘hear’
d)How does the nose ‘smell’
Finally, a project of studying the role of the indriyas and a suggestion of continuing this study in the next session.

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Lezione 21

Sinossi

This lesson begins with understanding the distinction between the mind and c̣itta. C̣itta is a wider concept as compared to mind. Because of c̣itta we have manas, buddhi, ahamkara. Therefore, it is called mind stuff. 
Then is explained the difference between types of vṛttis and classes of vṛttis. This is the functional classification for yoga. Explanation why the word mind should not be used for c̣itta. Mind is manas and not c̣itta. There is a difference between mano vṛtti and c̣itta vṛtti. C̣itta vṛtti has an ocean depth. Mano vṛtti has the depth of a pond. Mano vṛtti can oscilate. But c̣itta vṛtti subsumes and consumes an individual. There is no oscillation.
Then comes the understanding of sensely acts or sensory acts, the indriya kriyās. Eg. Different eye sensations in sirs̍āsana or urdhava dhanurāsana or sarvāngāsana. An important study to conceive indriyā kriyā which are extra sensory acts of the senses. ‘Sensology’ is a very important subject in yoga.

About breath: Breath does not have any genetic, karmic, etc. baggage or limitations. Breath is taken for granted. We never thank breath. As students of yoga, you must know your breath and its contribution. There is a lot of injustice on our part. So, schematise the breath when you understand. Instead of breathing any which way, better plan a scheme
In neo yoga, there is a mockery of praṇāyāma. Asked to just watch the breath. It is not even a run-up to praṇāyāma. Respiratory breath is to keep our autonomous system functioning and us living. Breath has enormous force, power. Breath has its own muscle, its conative and its cognitive aspect.  Yoga makes use of a pristine agency. Breath is the major material in all aṣṭānga yoga. Breath is an omnipotent agency in us.

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Lezione 22

Sinossi

This lesson begins with understanding the distinction between the mind and c̣itta. C̣itta is a wider concept as compared to mind. Because of c̣itta we have manas, buddhi, ahamkara. Therefore, it is called mind stuff. 
Then is explained the difference between types of vṛttis and classes of vṛttis. This is the functional classification for yoga. Explanation why the word mind should not be used for c̣itta. Mind is manas and not c̣itta. There is a difference between mano vṛtti and c̣itta vṛtti. C̣itta vṛtti has an ocean depth. Mano vṛtti has the depth of a pond. Mano vṛtti can oscilate. But c̣itta vṛtti subsumes and consumes an individual. There is no oscillation.
Then comes the understanding of sensely acts or sensory acts, the indriya kriyās. Eg. Different eye sensations in sirs̍āsana or urdhava dhanurāsana or sarvāngāsana. An important study to conceive indriyā kriyā which are extra sensory acts of the senses. ‘Sensology’ is a very important subject in yoga.

About breath: Breath does not have any genetic, karmic, etc. baggage or limitations. Breath is taken for granted. We never thank breath. As students of yoga, you must know your breath and its contribution. There is a lot of injustice on our part. So, schematise the breath when you understand. Instead of breathing any which way, better plan a scheme
In neo yoga, there is a mockery of praṇāyāma. Asked to just watch the breath. It is not even a run-up to praṇāyāma. Respiratory breath is to keep our autonomous system functioning and us living. Breath has enormous force, power. Breath has its own muscle, its conative and its cognitive aspect.  Yoga makes use of a pristine agency. Breath is the major material in all aṣṭānga yoga. Breath is an omnipotent agency in us.

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Lezione 23

Sinossi

The speaker starts with the mention of the third kind of meditation mentioned in the 7th limb of aṣṭānga yoga, which is dhyāna. The yogic process of meditation is directly linked and connected to prāṇayāma. Prāṇayāma is the gateway to dhyāna. Sūtra mentions, dhārṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ. Prāṇayāma makes the mind suitable, compatible for dhārna, dhyāna and samādhi processes.
Patañjali relates āsanas with prāṇayāma … 'tasmin sati' meaning thereafter; after dvandva anābhighātaḥ condition is attained. It is a pre-requisition. Āsanas are pre requisites for prāṇayāma.
This lesson is about the classical approach to learning yoga/prāṇayāma. 
Emphasis is placed on:
1. Understanding the importance of āsanas for prāṇayāma practices. This is an initiation to qualify for prāṇayāma. Āsanas open out an entire network of breathing passages. Study of breath circulatory system which is not available in study of body sciences.
2. There are other means to steady the mind; like a sunset or tranquilisers. But that is not what is implied here. The Mind should have a particular state to embark upon prāṇayāma. And this can be done through āsanas. This is the classical approach.
3.  Prāṇayāma is not about the control of the respiratory breath. The purpose is extra-respiratory. It is about exalted inhalations, inscriptive inhalations; it is about slow and penetrative exhalations; it is about hypo normal and hyper normal breaths. Not just deep breaths but slower breaths. Oxygen needs to go all over the body. That happens via media of the breath. Oxygen gets into blood and then is supplied to all the cells through the circulatory system.
4. Yoga recognises the ‘breath circulatory system’. Some part of our āsana practice should be devoted to address breath as a benefactor and beneficiary. 
A practical aspect of this lesson includes practice of āsanas of different sthitis such as the, supine, forward bending, upright, inverted etc. Namely, supta virāsana, adhomukha virāsana, virāsana, tādāsana, sīrsāsana, uttāna padma mayurāsana.
Here abdominal surgeries are suggested by, combing, ploughing, scraping etc. with exhalation. Also use of abdominal mannerisms are suggested for uddiyāna kriyā and uddiyāna mudrā. 
To Exhale with brain confinement, with eyes confinement, nose confinement etc. Exhale unusual volumes. This is a very important exercise to be carried out. It will involve every organ and every cell. You will discover ‘breath vessels’.
Starting with 5-10%, you will slowly be able to open out a field of study. Use this fascinating approach. See how mind can contribute to breath. To establish relationship between mind and breath. To understand the difference between sniffing the inhalation and taking the inhalation.

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Lezione 24

Sinossi

This lesson is about further understanding of prānāyāma and its instrument which is the breath.
It is about understanding that breath is not just something to be used. It is the most faithful thing in us and we need to pay back your dues to the breath by making the breath a beneficiary.
4 aspects of breath and breathing are explained with examples: 
1. In & out breath   2. The 2 types of retentions; after in-breath & after out-breath.
For prānāyāma, all movements start with s̍vāsa. Now, how to go about this breath? By regulation. Then, there need to be conditions for such regulations.
Respiratory breathing functions to keep us living. Prānāyāma includes breath control. Connotation of regulating the breath is different from connotation of regulating the mind or senses.
Our mind does not function the way we want it to. It is not a conscientious entity. It has tantrums. It is naughty. But our breath system works conscientiously. Then what is the need for regulation?
The speaker urges us to enquire into what is meant by regulating the breath. So also in prānāyāma, what is regulation? It is a unique condition.
 First, we must know and identify what are the extra respiratory functions and potentials of breath. Then know the usages, applications and activities of the breath.
Āsanās make a wonderful academy for learning this. Must keep dedicated time and devote it to breath studies. If we don’t understand the instrument, the agency, how can we regulate it? When the mind is quietened, that is the benefit to the mind. So also, mind must specifically benefit the breath.
The word regulation is three-dimensional It implies a regulator, regulated, regulating.
Words can be uni, or multi-dimensional. Eg. ‘Man’ is single dimension. He word ‘couple’ is two dimensional. It implies a relation between two persons. The word ‘son’ is three dimensional (implies father and mother for him to be a son)
Regulation will depend on the entity regulated and conditions prevalent at that time. Example is given of a policeman regulating different types of crowds.

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Lezione 25

Sinossi

The significance of breath.
1.Āsanas are a wonderful academy for prāṇāyāma. Purpose, function, act of breathing differ in different āsanas.
Necessary learning and experiments needed to see how the breath works. Wherever there is a special endeavour, there is a special breath.eg., Climbing a hill is facilitated by breath.
Mind has several roles in business of life. As part of prāṇāyāma study, we must know the functions of mind with various breath patterns.
When there is enforcement of will or, for an act of surrender, there is a different breath. Also there is body language. Behind body there is breath and behind breath there is mind. So there are varied physiology of breathing. Mind and breath are two sides of the coin.
Likewise, body and breath are two sides of a coin. Understand breath as benefactor and beneficiary.
Breath used, applied and addressed. People die without having known the breath. No acquaintance. Inhuman. Unfortunate. Unjustified. What is this agency called breath?
Books on yoga teach how to do but not how to learn. This is done only through guru-s̍iṣya paraṁparā. Through traditional wisdom. We need to learn before we can do.

2. Prāṇāyāma and not s̍vāsāyāma. Respiratory breathing is s̍vāsāyāma. 
Breath is not life force. It is FOR life force. As long as we breath there will be life force and vice versa.
Esoteric physiology talks of prāṇamaya kos̍a. Must know what is prāṇamaya kos̍a. If you don’t know this than how can you know pranayama? 
Must know 5 kos̍as.
All that lives, thrives and is nurtured by food is annamaya kos̍a. Not only body, even the temporal mind….brain, because of blood supply to brain or the lack of it. Blood is a product of food.  Intelligence is also annamaya kos̍a.
Prāṇamaya kos̍a has 3 aspects. Adhidaivik, adhyātmic and adibhautic aspects. 14 presiding deities over the organs. All 14 organs have unique functions. They are celestial forces.
Our ears are not tape recorders….ever seen a tape recorder jumping in ecstasy when there is beautiful music playing?
Eyes are not cameras. They are indriyas.
We carry oxygen to moon. Likewise, when celestial forces reside in the embodiment, they need the heavenly atmosphere. Heavens are part of the universe.
Whatever we eat is converted into prāṇa. What is oxygen to humans, prāṇa is to the celestial forces. If prāṇa departs, all the forces will leave the embodiment.
Prāṇamaya kos̍a made of 5 prāṇa and 7 chakras. Must have information about these.

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Lezione 26

Sinossi

This is a comprehensive lesson on the s̍at chakras located in the Prāṇamaya kos̍a.
Prāṇāyāma works from and with Prāṇamaya kos̍a.
Annamaya kos̍a is that which has all our apparent manifestations and identity references. It is the way we know ourselves and others know us.
Prāṇamaya kos̍a underlies as well as permeates annamaya kos̍a. It carries the mapping of our entire destiny. We are what we are because we are given this map upon birth. It is the ‘tendency body’. Prāṇāyāma and prānic practices can modify or alter our destiny to some extent. 
Human tendencies are enormously varied and are embedded in the chakras:
1.Muladhāra chakra: It is the locus of all basic supportive tendencies in all biological creatures viz., āhāra (food), nidrā (sleep), maithuna (sex), bhaya (fear mainly of death).
2.Swādis̍thāna chakra: Establishes individuality.  ‘sva’= self, ‘adishtha’= to establish. The intensity of food, sleep etc. habits can be regulated here. Helps individual to evolve.
3.Manipuraka chakra: this has not much to do with tendencies except food-generated tendencies. Food as in, not just for stomach but also food for thought, intelligence, etc. in previous as well as present manifestations. It is dependent on present time and space.
4.Anāhata chakra: It is the centre of ‘hearty tendencies’. These tendencies are often mismanaged or overlooked. For eg., an engineer may have ignored the pursuit of music which his tendency leaned towards. Anāhata will help identify these tendencies in us.
5. Vis̍uddhi chakra: Also called ‘saraswat chakra’. It is a place for knowledge pursuit. Brings the inclination to study dharma s̍āstra, philosophy, adhyātma etc. 
6.Āgñya chakra is the ‘brumadhya’, between the eyebrows. It gives will, volition, resoluteness. If we don’t have a strong āgñya, we cannot be successful in any endeavour. It needs to be managed.
The main product of prāṇāyāma is to manage and set right the tendencies. Physical health benefits are just a by-product.

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Lezione 27

Sinossi

In this lesson after recapping the previous lesson Prashantji emphasises the need to look at the panc̣a kos̍a. It is a very packed lesson with valuable learnings.
1.There is mention of the seventh c̣akra as an escape route for the emancipation of jiva, for moks̍a. It has all the aks̍aras of all the s̍at (six) c̣akras, but, this c̣akra has no manifestation.
2.There is a delineation of the word aks̍ara and how they become valuable to us when they come from a suitable source, especially with reference to yogic practices (prāṇāyāma). Here they become energy forms with reference to esoteric physiology. Prāṇa, after all, is Viswa C̣aitanya S̍akti.
3. The theory of panc̣a prāṇa is mentioned and the various prāṇas and their locations in the body are explained with suitable examples so that the student will understand the concept of prāṇa.
4.There is a very interesting view of the nostrils as instruments with the As̍wini kumars attending at their gates and with their help how chemical processes are churned out with the combination of nostrils, prāṇas and c̣akras. Yoga gives possibilities for refinement in energy technology; the pranic energy. Hence, prāṇa yamic breathing becomes wholistic breathing.
5.Then there is a peep into Manomaya kos̍a which is devised by body of sanc̣ita karma. Sanc̣hita karma is latent deposits of karmas. It has the entire scheme of all the lives hereafter. Sanc̣hita karma are like in cold storage. A micro-chip containing all karmas from time without beginning in the infinite manifestations. All these are in Manomaya kos̍a. Manomaya has one gate of entry. But nothing will come out from it, for us mortals. Karmas will go to Manomaya kos̍a. Only exalted beings can have that exit gate. All these will not manifest in this life. They are latent deposits which be liquidated hereafter. All infra-matter is available in Manomaya kos̍a. The outward gate of Manomaya kos̍a opens only once; to take latent deposit for prospective lives.
6.Finally, about life and its different forms, on this planet as well as other planets.

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Lezione 28

Sinossi

This lesson continues on the topic of panchakos̍a starting with an explanation of Manomayakos̍a   and then proceeding to Vijñānamaya and Ānandamaya kos̍a.
1. All karmas go to manomayakos̍a. Karmas have certain structure: -karma-  karmaphala- - karma - and so on. Karmas don’t end with fruition.  Some karmas are Sopakrama karma: they bear fruits in this lifetime itself. But some karmas don’t. They are nirupakrama karma. They go to manomayakos̍a.  Outward gate is sealed in manomayakos̍a.
2.Annamaya and pranamaya will end with death. But karmas generated will go to manomaya.
Manomaya kos̍a will transmigrate.
3.Vijñānamaya kos̍a is untouched by karma dynamics. Karmas do not filter to that level.
The Vijñānamaya kos̍a is the metaphysical aspect within us. It is a transcendent metaphysical entity. It is ātmā. It is the real metaphysical ātmā. No action reaches this kos̍a. It is akarta, abhogta. No samskāra therefore will ooze from here.
4.Ānandamaya kos̍a is the divinity zone within. Beyond vijñāna is ānandamaya. It is immanently there in us. Vijñānamaya kos̍a is metaphysical aspect within us. Ānandamaya kos̍a is the divinity aspect within us. Self-realisation is realisation of the Vijñānamaya ātma.
5.Kos̍as are not layers. In Taitriya Āranyaka the kos̍as are mentioned as ātmā. Annamaya to Ānandamaya ātmā.
6.Ānandamaya ātmā is immanent and transcendent. The Is̍vara mentioned in Pancharātra speaks about that antaryāmi. So also the Bhagwad Gita uses the same term. By surrendering to that, sorrows will end. Nirvāna. There is no return from there. One will get infinite bliss. That is Moks̍a pada/s̍as̍wata pada. There is liberation, mukti.
7.There is prithvi kos̍a of the earth. Reaches about 200 miles above the earth. Likewise, for all the kos̍as. So each kos̍a has an atmosphere around it. All kos̍a / ātmā have an atmosphere. So, ātmā and atmosphere together is the kos̍a. Kos̍a is something like aura.
8.Prāṇayāma needs to work on annamaya and the prāṇamayakos̍a. Even āsanas have to be done with prāṇakriyās.
9.Today's craze for dealing with body and breath matter only, is comparable to G1 in modern technology. We need to upgrade the classification. We should have classification of āsanas as.eg, prithvi-tattva-āsanas etc. All āsanas can be done in all tattvas, Bīja mantras and their c̣akras as locus of that element. We need to know this about the prāṇamayakos̍a.
10.Yogāsanas become yogāsanas only when we include pranakriyas and then the tattva kriyās.
11.Prāṇayāma is so named because of the prāṇamayakos̍a.

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Lezione 29

Sinossi

This is partly a Q&A lesson.
Q1. Explain the dichotomy about body, mind and breath being addressed as well as they addressing.
Ans. In the dynamics of yoga, there is another side where besides the body, mind, breath being put right, we also need ‘ourselves’ also to be put right. Who will do that? It will be done by body, mind and breath. By rotation, each of these three entities become the benefactor for the other two. This is possible in their interactive culture. So, there is no dichotomy.
 Rather than investing will, we should generate will. In associated conditions of body mind and breath we generate will. To start with, we need to have a will. But in the process of yoga, we can generate will. This will generate qualities of honesty, sincerity, integrity, etc. This will-generation becomes an organic process. Investments are meagre in quantity or quality. The reaps are disproportionately great. Yoga is a kitchen process of turning out sublime states.

Q2. What is fidelity in speech and mind?
Ans. Truth spoken out of helplessness does not indicate fidelity between mind and speech. Satya is truth. It is a dharma. There cannot be no fidelity in truth. S̍ānti mantra says, let my mind be established in truth and let truth be established in my mind.
Q3. Tell us about japa. 
Ans. There are various japas in diff sādhanās. Eg., japa of Om in jnana sādhanā and japa of Om in karma sādhanā are diff. So also in every other sādhanā; Bhakti, dhyana, mantra, dharma, yoga, tantra etc sādhanās. There are nitya, naimittika, kāmya japas. 
Ja=janma vichcheda (jakāro). 
Pa=pāpa nāshaka (pakāro). Destroyer of sins

Q4. What is satsanga?
Ans. It is contemplation, hearing, practicing, associating with, truth. It includes:
Santa sanga,… through saintly literature and by association with a saintly person
Sadhu sanga……..association with a sādhu. One who knows truth.
Satya sanga…. In pursuit of truth
Sattva sanga…..in pursuit of sattva guna
Its all about associating with truth. 

PRĀṆĀYĀMA:
 * Breath is an instrument: a carrier of prāṇa s̍akti. In and out breaths are vehicles of prāṇāyāma.
Vehicle has a purpose and function. It has to serve the purpose. Hence the vehicle as to be cared for. Likewise, we need to care for the breath. But that is the pop notion of prāṇāyāma.
* Use right hand only for digital prāṇāyāma. There is a beautiful finger mudra for that.
 *Energy aspects: thumb, little and ring finger. They form energy circuits in the body.
* Nādi is not as huge as the nostril. No need to block nostrils. Rather, create energy circuits. Is a tender act. Prāṇāyāma is like an ornament on your citta. Prāṇāyāma, is beautification of citta.
* Prāṇāyāma is wholistic: deals with pancha prāṇa. Therefore, wholistic.
Here, classical classifications and pop-classifications are explained by Prashantji.
-have division between asana and Prāṇāyāma practices. Don’t make water-tight compartments of your asana and Prāṇāyāma practices.
-Breath has chemical constitutions, to make negative into positive
-Make breath a tool, an agency, benefactor, beneficiary etc. Have field work in asanas to explore the potentials of breath.
-Rather than, what does the breath do for us? Ask, What is it that the breath does not do?
-Associated breath is a marvel. Like a swiss knife. It is much more than just a knife. 
- Get familiar with prana kriyas. Is there logic in having Prāṇāyāma without having pranakriyas?
-Breath must work under pranakriya. This is so important for Prāṇāyāma.

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Lezione 30

Sinossi

In this lesson Prashantji explains:
1. The importance of the how and why of correct use of the finger-tips for digital prāṇāyāma. Also how digital prāṇāyāma is not for beginners. For learning, prāṇāyāma must start with s̍vāsāyāma which has great value and must be practiced in the beginning.
2. Breath factor needs to be understood. All our functions depend on breath. It is integral to all actions, functions and manifestations of body and mind too. Breath needs to be personified and understood as an entity.
3. Body, breath, mind are agencies.
4. Human body has many delimitations. Mind has many delimitations too. Just having will is not sufficient. It has karmic gravity.
5. Breath does not have such delimitations. It does not have a karmic background and gravity. It comes in and goes out. It does not have any age. Every 4 seconds it is ever new and fresh.
Minds and body is not always new, even though the matter is renewable, but is not all the time new like breath. There is a corresponding breath to every kind of manifestation.
5. Āsanās are not contortions. Our body has a wide range of movements provided by nature. Hence varied number of āsanās are possible. Āsanās use that range to fullest possible extent. Through that range, we can work on blood circulation as also breath circulation. Hence breathing can be wholistic.
Breath, body and mind become multi-tasking agencies which is explored in āsanās.
6. Use supta (supine)positions to work with and understand the breath operations, with velocity, volume variations and their combinations; with graphic modes of breath. Also about how breath can interact with different parts of the body including sense organs and what sensitivities can be created. To know how breath moves differently in different terrains of the body.
7. Keep at least 5-10% of your time in asana practise to devote to understand breath.
Every time you practise the āsanā you have different conditions, so understand that difference.
8. Educate yourself about breath usage, breath handling, breath applications, breath purposes, which is all so important for embarking on prāṇāyāma practice. Take this opportunity to understand and identify and map the potentials of the breath. Only then you can be fit to regulate it.
8. Let us not be dictators on the breath. The more you watch the breath and breathing, you will be relieved from the grip of māyā.

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Lezione 31

Sinossi

There is no ‘ Manas vidya’ in any Indian s̍āstra. Why? Because mind is matter and has to be comprehended by philosophical processes. Mind is also imp for spiritual pursuit, and has been explored in Indian and oriental thought.
Mind is related to breath and prāṇa. In Upanishads and Brahmasutras, prāṇa is described to be companion of mahat or buddhi which is an intelligent principle. Then follows the process of creation from mahat or buddhi.
Prāṇa and intelligent principle (buddhi) are of one generation. They are brothers, twins.
Prāṇa is in all living creation. This is the signature condition of all living beings
Breath is not prāṇa. Breath starts from birth. And ends on death. No living creation is deathless.
But Prāṇa comes and goes but does not stop as in the case of breath. Death means end of breath. But not end of Prāṇa. Prāṇa leaves and not ends. It is eternal.
There is an inseparable relation between breath and Prāṇa. They are not one and the same. Breath is the vehicle of Prāṇa.
All mārgas become yoga…Bhakti mārga leads to bhakti yoga. Jñāna mārga leads to jñāna yoga and so on. Karma mārga must become karma yoga. So also dhyāna mārga and dhyāna yoga.
In vedic philosophy, breath has a position, which is used as an internal agency.
Mind must collaborate with breath and breathing, and then later with prāṇa.
Mind must sub-serve or get sub-served by breath.
Mind has schemes given by the tendency body (vāsanas) which are the internal stimulus.
Then the stimulations from outside will activate it… which are, s̍abda, spars̍a, rupa, rasa, gandha (external stimulus).
Usually in the business activity of life, in yutthāna avasthā, the mind which is functioning is the vāsanic mind.
In adhyātma we need sublime mind to work rather than tainted mind. We need transparent mind, pure mind.
Breath has to be driven in prāṇayāma. Not taken or done.
Just as water seeps to internal layers, there should be seepage of breath in diff layers of the body. Hence the word to be used is ‘drive’. We have to drive the breath.
Āsanas are a wonderful field to understand the breath.  Once you have learned the āsanas and have maturity in them, you will learn to drive the breath
Breath and mind can work like two sides of the same coin in adhyātmic activity. For worldly activity, that is not the case.
We were trying to differentiate between the breathing of animate system and the breathing of a yogi or in prāṇayāma. 
What happens to your mind when you are in satsanga? What happens to your tendencies? They are almost put to sleep. Hence we feel transcendent. Likewise, the vāsanās are put to sleep during yogic practices. Just as the prasāda sanctifies you, so also, in the internal realm, the breath sanctifies you.

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Lezione 32

Sinossi

Clarification is given of confusion between Vayu and Prāṇa. 5 vayus and 5 prāṇa. These nomenclatures are confusing because they carry the same names. Prāṇa and vayu are 8 generations apart. So difference is substantial. So no room for confusion. According to Sankhya, mula prakriti is the 1st principle. First mutation from pradhāna is mahat. Another mutation is Buddhi tattva also known as prāṇa. These two, mahat and prāṇa are like contemporaries. Vedanta has divulged this. Mahat has progenies, and in this lineage, vayu tattva comes in the 9th generation. On the other hand, prāṇa or buddhi tattva have no progenies. Vayus have 4 kriyas, though the vayus are 5. So we get, prana-vyana vayu kriya; apana-vyana vayu kriya and so on. While mentioning vayus, one must use the suffix of the word ‘vayu’ which will not be used for the pancha pranas. The prana kriyas will be, prana-vyana, apana-vyana and so on. When does breathing become pranic breathing? Breath does not change. But When mātrukas are used, then the breath connotes the pranakriya. Swara varnas are used for amantrak and nāma mantra used for samantrak prāṇayama. Without these it will be considered s̍vasayama. In Patanjali’s scheme, its not just about inhaling or exhaling… that is neither svasayama nor prāṇayama. How does it become an āyāma? The scheme is, the paridrus̍ta aspect. The des̍a , kāla and sankhyā to be regulated…paridrus̍ta…within a frame of a pattern…of cycles, or velocity, or place. Des̍a implies a region. Kāla paridrus̍tata is about qualitative improvement of the breath which will take time to happen. Saṅkhya paridrus̍tata … number of cycles regulated. Multiple cycles… will make it prāṅāyāma. Try one dimension at a time, not all three together. Then take combination of two factors simultaneously and make it two-dimensional regulation.Thereafter one can progress to three-dimensional regulation. The concepts of the terms dirgha and suks̍ma as implied by the aphorist are explained. Dirgha is not just a long duration of practice at one time but also over a long long period of time over months, years, and decades, even centuries with repetitive efforts. Suks̍ma refers to breath made so subtle that even the electrical pulsations are not found. As if the heart has stopped beating. Deep cellular hibernation takes place. Desa kala and sankhya paridrus̍tata will be applied with bahya vritti, abhyantar vritti and stambha vritti. For a proficient yogi, all this will happen. Then the movements may be considered as puraka, rechaka and kumbhaka, due to the qualifications of the yogi. Stambha and kumbhaka pranayama include holding or stopping breath. Nasal prāṇayama and the two naadis, surya and c̣andra are explained. It is not about the nostril but the naadi in the nostril. In the right nostril there are 350 prāṇanaadis. There are also the tattvas of prithvi, ap, tej, vayu and ākāsa. There are also the s̍at chakras. So there will be combinations of tattva and c̣akras in each, the surya as well as c̣andra nādis. For digital prāṅāyāma, only right hand should be used except in very very special circumstances. Use the correct mudra position as per the classical texts, or in Light on Prāṅāyāma. Nasal prāṅāyāma should not be practised in a hurry without qualification.

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Lezione 33

Sinossi

This lesson is a master class on understanding the nose as an organ of yoga practices and particularly as an instrument for pranayama. 1.The nose with its nostrils is a breath processor which makes breath suitable to take into the body so it becomes ‘lungable’. 2.Nostrils play the part akin to a musical instrument for prāṇāyāma practices. Just as a maestro can create masterpieces with the instrument, so also the proficient yogi can do with the nostrils. 3.Being aware of the breath can be a good beginning but a lot of neo-meditations rest on merely watching and sensing the breath. 4.This is a practical lesson which will involve the listener into watching the breath in the nostrils. Just like music is created when the notes come in a specific pattern, likewise, the movements of the breath can be guided to create music instead of cacophony. By assuming a restful position like swastikāsana or even s̍avasana, a detailed guided tour is given to familiarise with the different parts inside the nostrils. 5.Thereafter, learning to use the swaras of pranakriyas while inhaling and exhaling. Introduction to the different rivers and channels of the various swaras or sound forms.10 long vowels give 10 rivers originating in the nostrils. Each has a different source, course and terminal. 6.Prāṇāyāma takes recourse to mātrukās. Many rivers, each of the various consonants of the devnāgiri alphabet can be accessed. From ‘a’ to ‘ks̍a’. Akshamālā Upanis̍ad explains how each letter manifests in this boundless universe. Deity is Devi or Adi-māyā which is said to manifest through this. 7.All these are ‘nāda. Prāṇāyāma is related to nāda sādhanā. 8.A delineation is given about the use of names of deities and their use and effects for prāṇāyāma practices to understand the prāṇamaya kos̍a. The mātrukās respond differently to in-breath and out-breath. 9.A long list of various kriyas included in our yoga practices is given Then, he says, one can understand the 3rd kind of

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Lezione 34

Sinossi

This is a master class explaining the reason why prāṇāyāma should be practiced. Following are the highlights: 1.Recap of nostrils as a high-tech organ. Use of fingers on nostrils. 2.Like a veteran actor, the nostrils can enact so many profiles. Can be experienced by use of prāna kriyās and nāma kriyās and tāraka nāma. 3.Why should prāṇāyāma be practiced? In classical education, prāṇāyāma is not practised to have a placid, calm, serene mind. It is not for getting sensual benefits. Nor for physiological health, or temporal health, nor psychological health. Nor is it for therapeutic benefits. 4.If ananta samāpatti is the purpose for āsanas. Then what about prāṇāyāma? Prāṇāyāma removes the cloud which limits ātma s̍uddhi. Clouds of klesas and vāsanas. Like a kerosene lamp where soot collects and envelopes the light, so also vāsanas cover the light of the self. Light cannot be seen. 5.Prāṇāyāma opens out the portal for dhārna dhyāna , samādhi process. 6.Dhārna will lead to dhyāna and Samādhi. 7.Without prāṇāyāma cannot proceed to dhārna, and without dhārna, cannot procced to dhyāna or Samadhi. The three go together 'Triam ekatra saṁyama'. The three together are called saṁyama. 8.Prāṇāyāma is a corridor to the antaranga yoga, to dhārna dhyāna and samādhi. 9.Yoga is a parmārtha sādhanā. Its a continuous process from prāṇāyāma to Samādhi. If there is any interruption, we have to come to starting point again. 10.Through prāṇāyāma, we get pratyāhāra. Pratyāhāra is outcome of prāṇāyāma. Prāṇāyāma revoked implies that pratyāhāra is revoked. And so on with dhārna dhyāna and Samadhi. 11.The next stage cannot be achieved without accomplishing the earlier. 12.Prāṇāyāma is the threshold of antarātman sādhana. 13.Quintissential yoga will always launch with prāṇāyāma. 14.Without exception at any hierarchy, all processes of dhārna dhyāna and samādhi have to start with prāṇāyāma. At each time, every time and for everyone. 15.Goes from gross to subtler prāṇāyāma. In subtle prāṇāyāma there is recourse to Om, of the nām, of ekāks̍ara mantra. Om comes before everymantra.eg., Om namah s̍ivaya, Om namo Nārayana etc. There is also soham sādhanā. All these practices are subtle prāṇāyām. To be practiced with inbreath and outbreath. 16.Om is the master-key to all samādhis. Om is the ekas̍ara mantra, the mahā mantra, the mahā bīja mantra. 17.Prāṇāyāma itself transforms the yogi into pratyāhāra, dhārna dhyāna and samādhi stage. 18.Like the bogies of a train. The terminal point, of all bogies, because they are attached is the same; the destination of all is the same. 19.Prāṇāyāma is to be practiced for the Samādhi wisdom, for the adhyatma jñāna. 20.Prāṇāyāmedahe doshān. Prāṇāyāma destroys all dos̍a. 21.It is an inclusive process. By prāṇāyāma so many things can happen. Just as number 100 includes all numbers preceding 100, so also prāṇāyāma includes all the processes. 22.Yogi gets a good voice by practising prāṇāyāma but that does not mean prāṇāyāma is to be practised for a good voice. 23.Prāṇāyāma can effectualise into samādhi. Prāṇāyāma is for citta s̍uddhi. A great portal for essential yoga. 24.Prāṇāyāma leads to the dhyana which is the seventh stage of astanga yoga. Dhyana is a kind of prāṇāyāma. Dhārana is also a kind of prāṇāyāma. Pratyahara of svavishaya is a kind of dhyana. 25.Samadhi as the 8th limb of yoga is also a prāṇāyāma. 26.Patanjali’s dhyana is nothing but prāṇāyāma.

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Lezione 35

Sinossi

There is a recap that: Pranayama itself transforms into the following succeeding stages and states Pranayama is the material of the succeeding stages. Pranayama to Samadhi is an integral process. Thereafter 3 essential aspects are highlighted in this lesson: 1. It is not necessary that pranayama must be of deep breathing only; of exceptionally deeper breaths. In fact, this will not help in the progress. Because one may not be able to continue with it over a longer period of time. Cannot be very successful with a larger cluster of breaths. Patañjali mentions des̍a, kāla, saṅkhya . Sānkhya=number of cycles in a cluster. Saṅkhya implies schematised replicated cycles. There should be multiple such cycles. Best to have normal breathing so there can be greater cluster of cycles.Thereafter, tables for the practices of pranayama, pratyāhāra, dhārna, dhyāna and Samadhi are explained as given in the sāstras. Thus leading to the understanding that the normal breath itself can escalate into dhyāna. In classical yoga dhyāna must be dhyāna and not meditation. Meditation is only a part of dhyāna. 2. About dhyāna: The more we try, the more the mind becomes stubborn, fugitive, mercurial. Becomes the monkey mind, a naughty child. This is because we have not worked on vāsana management. There is an explanation about the three granthis and how we can manage them. 3.Another aspect discussed is about ‘kāla sandarbha’, i.e., regarding past, present, future. It is believed that meditation is to be in present. In psychological aspect we have present tense. Represented in front of face. Ears, eyes, tongue, nose in the now, is present tense. From eyebrow to lips. is area of present. All sense organs are located here. Nowhere else. All sensations can only be in present. Other sensations can only be memory or imagination if they are not the ‘that moment’ sensation. There is a very very interesting discussion about the metaphysical understanding of time which then leads us to understand why when we try to be in the present, meditation becomes more and more difficult. The paradox appears here. In reality, the potential becomes actual (future to present), and actual becomes latent (present to past). Latent does not become actual and actual does not become potent. Tomorrow has become today and today will become yesterday…. Not the other way!! Therefore, you cannot meditate on something we don’t know or yet to know. We can only do it on something known. Therefore, that object is in the realm of the past. Therefore, dhyāna depends on PAST. If past is not mature, you cannot meditate. Only when knowledge is profound, can one go for meditation. Therefore, it is hollow to try to banish the past. Past must be profoundly, profusely and thoroughly known. There is nothing like present. Can never catch the present moment. It will be a cluster of moments. The moment you think ‘moment’, the moment is gone. Like the snap of fingers. It has to be a body or cluster of moments. So where is the present brain? Nothing like present. Like mercury. Can never catch it! Moment is just a time concept. Cannot conceive the moment itself. Therefore, without reservation, go to past and take that as a support for dhyāna. Don’t be aversive of the old brain. Develop friendship and association with it.

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Lezione 36

Sinossi

This lesson has two major components. The first part is about the following important concluding points to the series of primary lessons on prāṇāyāma: 1.Prāṇāyāma works classically on ‘laya’ or ‘citta laya’, ‘mano laya’. In the subjectivistic realm it gives citta laya. Also works for a dispassionate, thirstless condition. It is called vāsanā s̍amana. Just as incense spreads a sense of sublimity, atmosphere becomes sublime. Likewise, prāṇāyāma works like an internal incense. It will cause citta laya. And it is not for just relaxation of mind. 2.Brahmo Up. mentions that 5 prāṇas are motivators of the 5 upa- prāṇa. Upa- prāṇas are behind the cognitive senses. Pranayama is essentially upa- prāṇāyāma. It is quintessential prāṇāyāma. 3.Nāga, kurma krukkra, devdutta, dhananjaya are the 5 upa-prāṇas. They form a very essential aspect of our embodiment. Of the 5 prāṇas, only ‘prāṇa’ has upa-prāṇas. Not apāna, samāna, udāna and vyāna. The second part of the lesson is about education. The definition of education and the concept of education in classical tradition is explored. 1.A person may be educated or uneducated. But we should not have literacy as the mark of being educated. Nor, should one who has been trained for successful economic endeavour be considered educated. 2.In society, a well-educated individual is considered one who earns well and has some status in society. But this is vocational training and not really education. 3.In Indian classical tradition, education started with learning the grammar and language before any other education was given. The basic texts like the four Vedās and the four upa-Vedās as well as Itihās and Purāṇas. Total 10 classical texts. 4.Study of Vedās leads to study of Vedānta. Then come the 6 dars̍anas. Then the Itihās and Purāṇas. Then Arthas̍āstra which is not just economics but rather the artha of purus̍ārtha of life. Then Jyotis̍a vidyā, the first of the Vidyā s̍astra. 5.Vāchika karma. S̍iks̍a is very important. Clear oration is very important. To recite the vedās one needs extra skills in the oratory organ.
 
 
 

Lezione 37

Sinossi

In this lesson Prashantji continues his discourse about education. I.Highlighting the travesty of the current educational system, he recalls that it was never the case that yoga education was encouraged for the purpose of making it a profession, a business or a means of livelihood. Today even uneducated individuals are encouraged to take up yoga education; however, he says, that was never the case in traditional times. II.Then he goes on to give a brief sketch of education in traditional or ancient times by giving a table of the structure of the vedic texts. This is a very useful lesson because it gives a foundation for understanding the structure of ancient Indian scriptures, which, is very necessary if one wishes to be a student of Indian Philosophy. There is a listing of the 4 Vedās and the 4 Upa-Vedās (sub and supporting Vedās) and their contents. The 6 vedānga (limbs) are enlisted. That makes 4+4+6=10 texts Later, 4 more texts were included; Arthas̍āstra, Dharmas̍āstra, Nyayas̍āstra and Itihās-Purāṅa. Rāmāyaṅa-Mahābhārata are Itihās. Added to that are the 18 Purānas. Nyāya was pursued to develop the human faculty of intelligence, reason and thought process. Vedas were not scriptures which were based on faith. They were based on logic, samskāras. There were Nyāya, Sāṁkhya, Vedānta, plus Dharmas̍āstra. Arthas̍āstra is about the 'artha purus̍ārtha'’ III.1. Reference is made to S̍iks̍āvalli of Taitriya Upanis̍ad which explains about the role of vāchā and manasā actions. It is important to understand the role of the organ of speech and its education. We need to educate, culture evolve and exercise the oral system, the speech system. We have a few oral exercises but we do not educate about good habits for speech. Chanting of vedās needs culturing of speech. S̍iks̍ā was developed for this purpose. Classical text was written by Pingalāchārya for s̍iks̍ā. Scriptures are not for mere reading and chanting or quoting. Rituals are prayoga of the texts and mantras; application of mantras at suitable times and occasions. Mantra, gesture (mudrās) are included. A detailed explanation is then given regarding the following other texts: 2. Kalpa are a body of texts called sutras. Alters for rituals were specified with mathematical calculations. Same are with different shapes. 4 texts of kalpa sutras are mentioned: Gruhya sutras, Dharma sutra, Sulbha sutras, S̍rauta sutras. Gautama dharma sutra mentions 40 saṁskaras, later reduced to 16. Then follows a list of yagña karmas of the 40 saṁskāras. 3. Nirukta is the science which helps to understand the meaning of the hyms and mantras. 4.Vyākraṇa of Panini sutras, Katyayana’s vārtikas, and Patañjali's Mahābhās̍ya (vyākraṇa and grammar not being the same). 5.Chhanda or meter of recitation of texts is important too. 6.Jyotish vidyā. Reference with time aspect and space aspect. IV.To know the application of Vedās is important. The 6 systems of orthodox philosophies are the Upa-Vedāṅgas.
 
 
 

Lezione 43

Sinossi

Japa takes place at a significant pace. In vaikhari there is one pace, with vibration in throat region. When done silently in the mind, it is mānasik japa where the vibrations are much faster, only throat parts are involved. There is a thin line between madhyama and mānasik japa. If the pace is slowed, it becomes madhyama vācika japa, greater parts of body are involved including abdomen, pelvic etc.; it is for the whole embodiment with deeper and slower inhalations and exhalations. japa karma (ritual, prescribed or prescribed) Japa upāsanā. It is done mentally. All are internal yagnas. Eg., S̍ivopāsanā, s̍aktiopāsanā, vis̍nuopasana, etc. All psychic and mental aspects are involved. Japa is yagna. This is the supreme most of all yagnas. Bhagwad Gita says, HE is the Yagna. ….aham…I am, I am, I am all that…all the components of yagna are Me and in Me. No alter or fire etc.is required. The offering is of prāṇa and apāna into each other during inhalation and exhalations. Fire is within. Performer is within. One who is offering is within. All offerings are within…the nāma, the mantra are the offerings in the yagna. Pāpa rās̍i, s̍adripus, etc., are the offerings in the agni within oneself. Various other yagnas like the pancha yagnas, naimittik yagna, kāmya yagna, etc. are mentioned. Japa yoga and japa sādhanā: Japa definitely will enter at a certain hierarchy in the sādhaka's pracice. In Patañjali yoga Japa is mentioned of 3 hierarchies: a) In 1st chapter sutra, "Tadjapastadartha bhāvanam is mentioned as svādhyaya". This is japa of supreme hierarchy. The japa of praṇava, Om, is svādhyaya. It is pavitra japa mantra. b)In ch:2, sutra 1, Tapasvadhyaya is̍varapranidhānāni kriya yoga is mentioned. Here svādhyaya is of middle hierarchy. c)In niyama of aṣṭānga yoga there is svādhyaya. This is the lowest hierarchy of japa mentioned in Patañjali’s yoga. Japa is like a kalpavṛkṣa. It can mitigate many ills, and fulfil many desires; from the mundane to the spiritual. Japa comes in countless forms. It is a prismatic concept. For ordinary man and a saint like Yagnavalkya, japa will not have the same hierarchy. For puṇya sarjana, for papa vimochana, for vrata vaikalyas, for prāyascita, there is japa. For jñāna, bhakti, karma, there is nāma sādhanā and japa. Japa is embraced in yoga marga, in dharma sādhanā, in dharma s̍āstra, in ārogya s̍āstra, in mantra s̍āstra. There are 18 kinds of japa relevant in yoga dharma.

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Lezione 44

Sinossi

Japa sadhana, japa yog, japa yagna. 18 kinds of japa: 1. Nitya japa: It has a particular frame work, a vidhi as given in the s̍astras; to be performed at the appointed time and place and observances and worships to be carried out; it is to be constantly observed very scrupulously. 2. Naimittika japa: Observed because of certain contingencies, in special conditions and occasions. Eg., on the days of solar and lunar eclipse; Sri Rāmanavmi, Mahās̍ivarātri, etc. Some japas are used in times of emergency or during inclement conditions. 3. Kāmya japa: For Iṣṭa prāpti, anugraha; they are used for fulfilling some desire in the spiritual realm. 4. Prayascit japa: For incidental or accidental sins, unknowingly performed, which could have been at various stages in life, there is prayascit japa to express remorse. So that the spiritual sad̄hanā is not tainted. 5. Chala japa: No time and space condition. It is a great bounty for most seekers because all relaxation is given. It is useful for all, especially when mind is restless and can create a havoc. 6. Achala japa: Very severe and strict discipline needs to be observed for observing all conditions. Such japa is a part of rigorous sādhanā. Cannot be done anywhere and anytime. 7. Vāchika japa: Oral organs (vaghendriya) are used. It is a vaikhari japa which includes oration and external sound. It is sa-s̍abda japa. Has dhvani, sound. 8. Upauns̍u japa: can be ni:s̍abda. Mouth can move, but no external sound is produced. Because of lip movement, others know you are in japa and so, will not disturb you. This japa is in madhyama speech. 9. Bhrāmara japa: humming sound is produced. Good for the brain, like bhrāmari prāṇāyāma. Diff octaves can be used. 10. Mānasika japa: It happens in the brain. Thought is present as a japa. This also has concessions. It can be done anywhere. 11. Nis̍iddha japa: All those aspects which should be avoided are mentioned in this japa, so no mistakes are committed. 12. Akhanda japa: Need affiliation to one’s deity. It is continuous in all wakeful states, like a drone instrument in the background, no matter what activity is being performed, until death. 13. Ajapajapa: reference to breathing cycles and prāṇic movements. The very breathing is japa. Also called anāhata japa. 14. Pradks̍iṇā japa: If there is a personal deity to be worshipped, then there will be circumumbulance; going round the body. That is upāsanā. That is pradks̍ina. 15. Parikarma japa: For citta parikarma. To pacify or purify the citta. 16. Dhyānaja Japa : in the very act breathing there is samantraka-amantraka kriya.. Samantraka prāṇāyāma, with prāṇa-apāna kriya is dhyānaja japa. 17. Samādhi japa: Omkara japa or prnava japa. No samādhi is possible without it. 18. Sabda-pradhāna japa: even without understanding the meaning of the mantra, it can be used. The very word has power. Hence, sabda-pradhāna. In nāma yoga, artha- bhāva pradhāna mantra is essential. The meaning of mantra must be known and suitable bhāvanā (emotion in the heart) must be there. Dhvani-pradhāna mantra is also required. Tāraka nāma: nāma is always of a personal deity. It is redeemer and obliterator of all sins. Nāma must be with bhāvanā which will bring redemption.
 

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Lezione 45

Sinossi

There is a little recap of japa and japa kriyā, sādhanā, upāsanā, and vijñāna. A. The 3 factors in japa: vāca, prāna, manas Vāca: organ of speech. Speech can be para, pas̍yanti, madhyama, vaikhari. Vaikhari can only happen with exhalation. Vocal cords vibrate for speech, for which exhalation plays a unique role. Prāṇa kriyā is involved by way of breath. Role of manas in japa: When there is bhava bhāvanā, there is an intent which is the mind or manas. B. Ādidaivik thought for the 3 factors in adhyātma mentions that 3 deities preside in vāca, prāna and manas. a) Agni devatā for vāca or vāghendriya kriya. Resides in the mouth. Sub-factors are: Vāc, dhvani & agni b) Surya or Āditya devatā is related to prāṇa. Sub-factors are: sankhya Prāna, surya c) Soma or Chandra devatā for the mind, which resides in the mind. Sub-factors are: Artha bhāva, manas, Chandra. C. Other factors regarding japa: 1. Harmony is needed in the oratory act of japa. There is spandana which is vibration. There is also rhythm. 2. Number: 108 is the mysterious factor (rahasya). Why 108? 4 speeches and all their various factors amount to 108. There are 108 major Upanis̍ads. !08 beads in a japa mālā. 25 principles of Sānkhya along with the other factors also sum up to 108. Power of japa. Rāmdas Swāmi completed 13 crores of japas for 12 years non-stop in his lifetime. Story of Sāyanāc̣ārya. Was the brother of Mādhavāc̣ārya. Said to be a dullard. Was asked to recite 2.4 million x24 japas=gāyatri purasc̣arana. On 24th round of 2.4 million japas, he became one who could comment on the vedas. Story of Pandit Srirāma Sharmā who also completed Gāyatri purasc̣arana and became a prolific writer and translated many many Sanskrit texts in Hindi language. D. Nāma rahasya: Nāma is also very efficacious. It can get even Bhagwān (Nāmi) into a spell. Story of Nāmdeva. Sages like Kabir, Thyāgraja and various others took recourse to nāma. Story from Ramayana. The nāma is greater than nāmi. Place of nāma and japa in aṣṭānga yoga is explained. Breath in āsana and prāṇāyāma is also nāma, because of the pattern given by the prāṇa kriyās.

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Lezione 46

Sinossi

Neo-spirituality is very cerebral. Nāma aspect is overlooked. In classical approach, there is the concept of ‘sanga’. Eg., sat sanga, s̍astra sanga, sādhanā sanga. Known as the ‘sangātraya’. The three sangas. They draw one towards their gravities. Eg., SĀDHANĀ SANGA. Doing sādhanā is one thing, but being drawn towards it is another. Hence it becomes a sanga.In sādhanā sanga the most important thing is, nāma mantra. 1. Svādhyaya in Patañjali yoga mentions praṇava japa; japa of OM. This is for the uttamadhikari as mentioned in Samādhi pada. In Sādhana pada he mentions svādhyaya of kriya yoga for the madhyamadhikari. In aṣṭānga yoga, there is again mention of svādhyaya in the niyamas for the ādhamadhikāri. What is svādhyaya? According to Vyāsa it is moks̍a s̍āstra adhyayanam, which is 'self study'. In neo-adhyātma, modern study, self-study is possible by contemplating on self. But in dharma s̍āstra etc, self-study is by moks̍a s̍āstra adhyayana. Study of sukṣma s̍arira, sthula s̍arira and kāraṇa s̍arira sādhanā is required. So, traditionally, āsana, prāṇāyāma practices were very much a part of moks̍a s̍āstra. 2. In the study of aṣṭānga yoga, at every aspect of the eight limbs, it is suggested that sādhanā of nāma japa, and mantra sādhanā is imperative. Japa will keep one embraced to satya. The nāma is satya. Eg, the nāma of '‘rama'’. Āsana is a citta vṛtti endeavour. It implies sthairyam. But not just of body. Rather of citta. If nāma is repeated, the breathing pattern is replicated and mind pattern is also replicated. So, a form is created, repeated. This has to be understood in the higher structure of āsanas. Nāma works for 'tulya pratyaya’ in the mind. ̄ 3. Another meaning of svadhyaya is mantra; mantra s̍āstra adhyayana or nāma Therefore nāma is tārak mantra. All this is done by SANGA. One is drawn towards it. One need not do it mindfully or willfully. It is not a cerebral process. These are the esoterics of nāma and mantra. They will draw us toward them. This is the mysticism. There must be replication…'.eketānāt' Every nāma will have different length and meter. So they will be suitable for different practices. A sthūla s̍arira sādhanā can become a sukṣma s̍arira sādhanā if nāma or mantras are used. 4. Mantra may be recited and alternatively heard; s̍ravaṇa will also work. Writing the nāma also works. When you write you also speak it mentally. So in the mind, speech is involved. Various types of japa have been explained in the earlier lesson. 5. Nāma will prevent asatya, himsa etc. Hence it is a saviour. Nāma has a hypnotic spell. Antarāyas can be countered. They become a 'pathy’ here.
 

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Lezione 47

Sinossi

Japa sādhanā permeates all the aspects of yoga. Belief that meditation is about thought process. But this is not according to the classical thought. 1.Japa is mentioned in Patanjali yoga sutras at 3 places. Once in Samādhi Pāda and twice in sadhana pada. Praṇava japa is not the only japa. Pat. Mentions 'pranava ādi’ ;ie., pranava etc. Japa is an aspect of svadhyaya. Svādhayaya is moks̍as̍āstra adhyayana. Japa gives Isvara pratyaks̍a; if that does not happen, at least we can get some realisation; if that too does not happen then we can at least get antarāyā abhāva. 2.For us the antarāyās are for our prapancha (mundanity of practical life) For the yogi antarāyās are samādhi antarāyās etc., obstacles for samādhi or spiritual evolvement. Therefore, OM is a 'pathy' for the navantarāyās. So also for the sahachāras: dukkha, angamayajayatva, s̍vāsa-pras̄vasa vimochaka. 3.Similarly, about ahimsā, satya, asteya etc. For fulfilment of our 'yama sādhanā’ we take recourse to japa or nāma sādhanā. This will avoid violation of yamas and niyamas (yama bhanga). 4.Iṣṭadevatā smaraṇa. Nāma smaraṇa to prevent the diseases. (Passages from Epilogue to Vis̍ṇusahasranāma have been quoted). Nāma sādhanā, strotra paṭhana, vāchana, manana etc to be used. 5.Japa sādhanā applies to āsana practice. Patañjali has mentioned, ‘sthira sukham asanam'’ How to steady? Not just about steady body. But also about consciousness. There has to be sthairya in āsana. How? Nāma or japa will give replication of breath. This gives sthairya. Breath is constantly flowing. 6.Samantraka and amantraka japa. Pranayama also leads to sthairya. It leads to pratyāhāra, then leads to dhārnā, dhyāna, samādhi of all kinds (samprajñāta, asamprajñāta etc.). (Manyu suktas have been recited and quoted). 7.Japa is important for mantra efficacy. 8.Sthana of japa is important. It should be pure and sublime (pavitra). Eg., banks of a river or the peak of a mountain, a temple or under a bilva tree. (Quote from Devi Bhāgwata Purāna is recited). Place should be low-lit, pious, clean, sanctified. 9.Japa mālā (string of beads) of 108 or 1008 beads to be made of tulsi or sphatik or such special substance is an important factor. 10.Japa sādhanā hetu. 11.Tantrik upāsanās mention specifications of mālās and mantras etc. 12.Various sādhanās in which japa is mentioned and recommended. 13.Mantra is a source for japa. Vedas are mantra-māyā. 14.Astanga yoga is primary yoga. After that, the graduation comes with mantra yoga. Then laya, hatha, raja, rajadhiraja or kundalini yoga follow in that order. 15.Yoga siddhis are also accomplished by other means: aus̍adhi and rasāyana, mantra, by birth. 16.Etymological meaning of mantra: 'Mananāt trayate is mantra’. Which means, that which delivers the mind is mantra. (Quote from Matsya Purāna is recited). 17.Mantra-tantra-yantra concept. 18.Nāma also becomes mantra. Various names of Nārāyana are used, names of Vis̍nu are discussed for efficacy in different situations. 19.Mantra yoga

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Lezione 48

Sinossi

Q1. What is the concept of Anadi? About the purus̍a tattva, ātman, Paramārtha, Is̍vara etc which are considered to be anādi entities. Detailed answer is provided with the following salient points: 1.Anādi implies anything that is beginning less, or something very ancient. Like the ancient scriptures, our vāsanās, 2.In the world of our experience, everything seems to have a beginning and an end. 3.Does beginning-less imply ageless? Timeless? 4.According to theory of evolution, human life evolved at a point in time. At a point some billions of years ago, the planet earth was bereft of life because it was too hot. Then how can there possibly of anything being anādi? But then, earth is not the only planet. Creation involves other planets of the galaxy, as well as other galaxies. 5.Creation is not a linear concept. Rather, it is cyclical. Hence the eternal question; what came first : the seed or the tree? 6.Concept of omnipresent includes not just presence but presence in time. 7.Earthly calendar and celestial calendar are compared. Different Kalpās are discussed. 8.Earth as just a tiny part of the infinite plan. 9.Divinity is not touched by time. It is kālatīta. 10.Latent becomes actual and cycles continue from latent to potential to actual. 11.Vāsanas or tendencies existed before the existence of earth, in latent and potential form. Earth was not existent but vāsanas were, in the vast universe. 12.After 600 billion years earth and sun will not be there, but many suns will be there as per astrophysics. 13.As per metaphysics the beginning-less aspects of vāsanas, divinity and the self, have always been there 14.Pādma Kalpa is explained. S̍vetavataraha kalpa is explained. 15.Avatāras of Vishnu in the cycles of manvantarā discussed; Das̍avtāra mentioned. The cycles of kalpas continue. Therefore, the self, the purus̄a tattva, is really anādi. 16.eg. of transmigration given. Just as the human beings are migrating to another place, country, continent, so also, purus̍a can transmigrate to another galaxy too. Q2. How is the yoga of āsanas and prāṇāyāsma universal? A2. Āsanas are available in different ways for persons of different age groups, different health conditions, different mental and psychological conditions. They are suitable for exercise, activity, remedial processes, etc etc. Therefore, they can be suitable for all. Hence, all can do yoga, but the same yoga will not be for one and all. Patañjali’s yoga cannot be the yoga for ordinary you and me. Eg., as we adjust to climatic conditions, so also, āsanas can be adjusted according to conditions. This will help re-set conditions of all human beings. So, education about this is required.
 

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Lezione 49

Sinossi

Q. Is yoga for all? A. Yoga fructifies for one in many thousands. Fructification may take place in another eon. What makes everyone take to yoga? So many channels available to pursue yoga. Different types of persons: Activity-oriented persons (may enjoy incessant activity); Fighters in life; nivṛtti-margis (prefer a passive, sedate life); Knowledge-pursuant persons; Health fanatic persons; form and body-conscious persons; intellectuals, etc. Each of above has a reason to pursue yoga. Yoga is very prismatic. Has something to offer everyone. Most creatures live within a frame. But human beings change radically. Some persons want yoga-in-20 minutes. Some want it to be lasting for many life-times. Currently, yoga is popular as an exercise form. Some people seem to never get enough of it. At different stages of life, humans have different tendencies; childhood, teenage, adulthood, middle-age and old-age. The same āsanās can be practiced with a different focus for all the above groups. For eg., young ones will practise to burn and expend energy to get some benefits whereas old ones will practise to preserve and build energy. Q. Is there life only on earth? A. Nothing is useless on earth. Everything has a purpose for the principle of life. There is life on other planets too but one that needs different conditions than from earth. Hence, human life cannot be found there. In eschatology one can be travelling through 7 infernal and 7 celestial planes. Life transmigrates to these planes. Hence life exists everywhere. Even on the sun as well as other planets. 2 paths in eschatology:1. Dhumra-marga (pitruyana-marga and devayana marga) 2. Diti marga (illumination). Fruits of all deeds may not fructify on earth. All fruition is not available on earth. But may be available and can happen on other planets. Which have conditions different from earth. Yoga offers all this knowledge. But most students are not interested in this knowledge which is beyond our ideas, notions and concepts.

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Lezione 50

Sinossi

Necessary components in classical yoga practices: a.Sangātraya- satsanga, s̍āstra sanga, sādhanā sanga : Sat=eternal truth. Sanga=to associate, to affiliate. With regard to the sangātraya, it is not just association but about gravitating and being addicted to satya, being absorbed and addicted to the s̍āstras and getting entrapped with the sādhanā. If there are doubts about one's sādhanā, sādhu and santa sanga will remove such doubts. Sattva sanga (sāttvic life) will also contribute to knowing satya. Satsanga takes us inwards to travel towards the truth. Texts of the s̍āstras gives us the messages which have come to us over the ages through saints. b.Yagña dāna tapas: There are practices to imbibe these principles. This involves reverence for these principles. If there is reverence it will lead you to DO something. Something to get rid of all that is negative in us. That is yagña. Dāna is to give away. Not what we do not want, not just what we can give, but that which we covet and cannot part with. If there is love, it can be done. That will bring dāna vṛtti, not just dāna kriyā. Tapas is about purification. When some practices are taken up for the purificatory act, that is tapas. We need to do some practices for all of these. c.Sāttvic āhār-vihār-āchār-vichār (chātus̍ya): There are some practices to keep away and mitigate tāmo guṇa and rājo guṇa. They are given in the s̍āstras. Hence, again, s̍āstra sanga. 1.ĀHĀRA: Sāttvic food, sights, sounds, smells, touch; all these are āhāra. Foods for the various senses, mind, emotions, identity. Food for manas, buddhi ahaṁkāra (antaḥkaraṇātraya). Nutritious food is not sufficient. Means of procurement and process of procuring must also be pure. Purity=pure means + pure intake. 2. VIHĀRA: Movements and conduct. All such activities should be pure, noble, sāttvic. 3.ĀCHĀR: Conduct should be sāttvic. How do we conduct ourselves when with others, family, society and when by ourselves. 4.VICHĀRA: Banish rājasic and tāmasic thoughts. Encourage sāttvic, pure and noble thoughts. 5.SĀDHANĀ: the practice of weaning away from tamasic and rajasic guṇas and gravitate towards sāttvic. The sādhanā sanga are, sthūla, sukṣma and kāraṇa sarira sādhanās. ASome practices like āsana prāṇāyāma for sthūla s̍arīra. Japa for sukṣma s̍arīra and dhyāna for kāraṇa s̍arīra. All these entail practices. Do not despair of deprivation because of being in kaliyuga. These are latent in us from the saṁskāras of all the other yugas like tretāyugas, dvāparyugas and satyayugas.

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Lezione 51

Sinossi

“To be engrossed in mundanity and then seeking well-being is a paradox.” In the current world scenario, doing some exercises, practicing some postures and breathing exercises, and then like the topping on an ice-cream, practicing some meditation is considered to be yoga. Unfortunately, the parentage of this is attributed to Patañjali. Every yoga student revers Sage Patañjali. So, let us have some formal education, an overview, about 'Patañjali’s yoga' which is textually available. This is a curtain-raiser to the yoga sutras. (2 Invocations to Patañjali are recited and explained). This treatise is for human well-being. Having a human form is not being human. One’s outlook of the world, and conduct of life can qualify one to be a human being. Patanjali’s text is not yoga s̍āstra, but is yoga dars̍aṇa. Texts like Bh.Gītā, S̍iva samahitā, Goraks̍a samahitā, Haṭha yoga pradipikā, Gehranda samahitā, and various such texts are available on yoga s̍āstras. S̍āstras deal with technology and processes of yoga for the embodiment. Yogachudāmani Upaniṣad., Dhyāna bindu Upaniṣad, Yogakundalini Upaniṣad, are more such texts. Dars̍aṇa is a philosophical system, a knowledge structure. Dars̍aṇa is to have a peep into, to 'look at' that philosophical system. Yoga sūtras are about the philosophy of yoga. These sūtras are not about the techniques of practice. So, a Dars̍ana S̍astra needs to structured on certain columns, universally acceptable to all philosophies. The Columns of a dars̍ana s̍āstra: 1.Epistimology or the process of knowledge. It is the foundation of any dars̍ana. It is the jñāna mimāṁsā. The purpose, cause and effect of knowledge. ‘Citta vṛitti’ is the major tool for all knowledge process. Patanjali deals with it. (various dars̍anas in the Indian systems of philosophy have been mentioned). 2. Psychology or mānasas̍āstra. The study of the mind. Patañjali exalts here. 3. Cosmology or the process of creation. An inquiry about living and non-living, sentient or insentient things. 4. Ontology or the inquiry into the cause of existence, or the primordial cause, the first cause. The theory of ‘being’. (Cosmology and Ontology are about metaphysical inquiries). 5.Teleology: The human, from his selfish perspective, believes that other creatures like bugs and mosquitos are useless and harmful. So also, what is the use of the various of stars and galaxies? Human being is anthro-centric. Does not recognize that, what is apparently useless for him, is useful to others. That branch which studies this usefulness to the living principle is called teleology. It studies all that is designed for the very principle of existence. 6. Paramārtha-the spiritual summum bonum. Maitri-bhāva has to be extended beyond this galaxy and extended beyond to other galaxies on a universal scale. Philosopical pursuit for the ’becoming’ of mankind. Not by a global scheme, but by a cosmic scheme. Becoming is more important than knowing. Not only to realise but, to be in the realities. That is the parmartha mode. 7. Dharma: not religion but that which helps on realise the realities. Philosophy divulges the realities. 8. So, what is to be practiced to have this manifest in mankind? Yagna dana tapas etc. Therefore, āchar-niti-praṇāli. Patan̄jali gives ways and means. Sādhana and sādhanā. The tools and the methods. Every dars̍ana gives āchāra-nīti-mimāṁsā; the ethico-religious practices. Not religion with any ‘ism’ but rather evolving consciousness in mankind. Studying the text of yoga sutra formally is what needs to be done, and that is what we will do.

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Lezione 52

Sinossi

Knowledge process beyond cerebral process. Ultimate reality/truth is never ever been conceived by a cerebral process. Philosophy is not a matter of belief. Then how is it possible to have the knowledge? Through the ethico-religious system. 1.The universe is vast and must have a creator. This, gives the theological thought of the creator of the universe. The cosmos is not a chaos hence, there must be some organiser. Construction and destruction in the universe is constantly carried out. This is the theological process. 2.Revelation of mysteries of the universe. Some can be known by cerebral processes. But much can be revealed by intuitive mysticism. This is mysticism of metaphysics. 3.Knowledge is usually gained by some processes with some means. The knowable can be known by the knower. The knower is empowered. This will give knowledge; gnosis. This process of knowing is the branch of epistemology. Indian thought process of prama, prameya, pramāṇa, pramātru. The knowable known and unknowable known. Correct knowledge and faulty knowledge. Testing of knowledge. About the 'knower' apart from the 'known'. 4.Knowledge comes in human consciousness…mind, intelligence, ego. Mind-stuff is the instrument of the thought process. Who receives the knowledge? The knower is investigated. The investigation of ‘self’. Self is the one who feels, smells, thinks, sees, etc. That is the Puṛuṣa. Therefore, to know the knower. This is mentology or psyce-ology. If the mind is not in right condition, the knowledge will be distorted. 5.What is the origin of human life? Where have we come from? And, where are we going? There has to be a cause, which would have another cause and so on, till we can arrive at the first cause, the primordial cause, the seed cause. The cause will lead to a series of effects. This is the study of causation. Ontology, the study of the essence of being. 6.What is the purpose of any creation? That study is the branch of study of teleology. 7.The first cause is a primordial cause. Metaphysics studies this. The Noumenal behind the physical is the subject of metaphysics. Not everything can be seen by our naked eyes. Likewise, our naked consciousness cannot know everything. Only mystical intuition can know it. Ethico-religious practices can help the intuitive consciousness to work in an exalted way. 8.The ethico-religious system of Patañjali is the aṣṭānga yoga. It is a samādhi process. The intuitive mysticism is in the samādhi process. The concept of saṁyama is given in the Vibhuti pāda.

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Lezione 53

Sinossi

A.Intuitive processes of mysticism do not need a logical process. Through yoga we can evolve the calibre of the psyche. Develop the Intuitive-scope like a microscope or telescope. Therefore, the yogi’s realm of knowledge is completely different. Samādhi pragñyā (intutivo-scope) gives such knowledge. HOW? By ethico-religious practices of aṣṭānga yoga evolving into kriyā yoga and then into Samādhi yoga which is intuitive mysticism. Without this there can be no knowledge in the realm of metaphysics. (There is a brief recap of the columns of dars̍ana s̍āstra which were discussed in lesson 52). Epistimology (includes tarkas̍āstra or logic which is Nyāya s̍āstra) Patañjali’s yoga does great service to set right the ’knower entity’ in pramān mimaṁsā of Patañjali. Other columns are Psyche-ology, Ontology, Cosmology, Teleōlogy, and Ethico-religious practices. All these are the integral practices of aṣṭānga yoga. As̍uddhi kṣaya & jñāna prāpti are the two effects of aṣṭānga yoga practices. These culminate in intuitive-mystic practices; Samādhi practices. All orthodox as well as heterodox systems are in agreement with this, that, without samyak jñāna, (samādhi practices), essential knowledge cannot be had. B. Something about Patañjali: The prologue to overview of Patañjali yoga sūtras. 1. Patañjali is an avatār of Adis̍esa (nitya sūri or eternal being). Being eternal, the various works of Patañjali on yoga, Vyākraṇa and C̣āraka saṁahitā were not necessarily done in the same incarnation. Invocation describes him as an Adis̍eṣa avatāra. 2. Language and linguistics are so essential for understanding the subject of c̣itta-vritti. Hence Vyākraṇa. 3. C̣itta is also dependent on dhātus; the chyles of our body. Hence management of 7dhātus is so important. So also the vāta-pitta-kapha management. Āyurveda is the science which explains the balance of these dhātus. Āyurveda is very closely related to sāṇkhya philosophy; Body related to mind and mind as integral to body. 4. Who was the Guru of Patañjali? Patañjal is the expounder of yoga, not propounder of yoga. Where did Patañjal get insight into yoga? Āgamas tell us of the first mention of yoga by Hiranyagarbha who was at very beginning of all creation. In Pāncharātra āgama, the discourse on yoga was heard by Patañjali as Ādis̍eṣa, from Para Vāsudeva or Nārāyaṇa in Sri Vaikuntham. This is the source. The wisdom of Nārāyaṇa seeped into his bed which is Ādis̍eṣa. And Patañjali is an avatār of Adis̍esa. 5. Two yogas are mentioned in Pāncharātra. i) Karmayoga ii) Cittanirodhākṣayoga This is testified in the Mahābhārata and in Ahirbudhanya Saṁahitā.

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Lezione 54

Sinossi

1.Patañjali is an avatār of Adis̍esa belonging to the class of nittya sūris belonging to Sri. Vaikuntham. There is no deluge in Sri. Vaikuntham. No day and night. It is an eternal plane. Nittya sūris are ever sighting Para-Vāsudeva, Nārāyaṇā. Among the nittya sūris, Adis̍esa has a unique place because Sri Nārāyaṇā reposes on Adis̍esa. 2.Nittya sūris have an exalted experience beyond satsanga, that is, prakruṣṭa sattvasanga. Hence, the vibrations received by Adis̍esa while listening to the discourse of Pañcharātra were beyond imagination. 3.Patañjali manifested as the avatar of Adis̍esa. Born to a yogini, Gonika, as a small form of a snake fallen in her palm while offering all her knowledge to the Lord. Hence, Pat=fallen, Anjali=folded palms. 4.Pañchāratra mention the 5 forms of Adi-nārāyana. Para, vyuha, vibhava, archa, antarayāmi. Also had discourse on yoga. Thus, this is the source of knowledge of yoga s̍astra by Patañjali. 5.4 quarters to Yoga S̍astra. 4 pāda-s: Samadhi pāda, for the uttamadhikari. Sādhana pāda for the madhyamādhikari which is on the means of yoga. It is expressed as kriya yoga. It also explains aṣṭāṇga yoga, for the adhamādhikari, which ends on Samādhi where there are mysterious revelations. Vibhūti pāda, explains the siddhis, the glories and powers and the rationale and effects of the siddhis attained by the seeker. The fourth pāda, is Kaivalya pāda, which is about the summum bonum of mankind, i.e., nirvāṇa, kaivalya, moks̍a. It explains the process of reaching there. 6.Codified language of Patanjali was decodified by Vyāsa who penned a scholium called Yogabhāṣya. Vyāsa was the authorised spokesperson of Patañjali. Vyāsa commences with his invocation to Patañjali. (Invocation is recited and explained). 7.Samādhi pāda explained: It is yoga of the highest hierarchy. Uttamādhikāri does yoga to restrain the mind-c̣itta. Thus it is quintessential yoga. Starts with 'C̣itta vṛtti nirodhaḥ'’ C̣itta is like an enormous ocean. The mind which we are aware of is just the tip of the iceberg in the ocean. Therefore, c̣itta is not just mind, but mind-stuff. It is like an enormous container of experiences, saṁskāras of many many lifetimes. Therefore, c̣ittavṛtti nirodhaḥ and not manovṛtti nirodhaḥ! 8.According to Sāṁkhya dars̍ana: c̣itta is manas-buddhi-ahaṁkara. Manas: that which senses, feels, perceives, cognises, has memory, tendencies etc. Buddhi tattva: consciousness principle. Essential to consciousness. Ahaṁkāra: identity, the framework and role of identity. Therefore, restraining these tendencies of c̣itta is yoga. This includes, faceting, restraining, cosmicalising, sublimating. 9.What happens then? We come closer to the core of our being. We get in-faced; antarmukhi. There will be no outer garments of caste, class, gender, status, stature etc. Like a state of very deep sleep. To be human is a limitation. It is like wearing a garment of a particular kind. 10.Otherwise, when there is no yoga we identify ourselves with the state of our outgoing mind; happy, sad, etc., countless states. However, the core being (self) has no state whatsoever. 11.Pat. Mentions 5 classes of c̣itta vṛtti. “vṛttayaḥ pañchatayyah, kliṣṭā akliṣṭāḥ”. These have to be restrained.

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Lezione 55

Sinossi

The first two sutras are unfolded. 1.atha yogānus̍āsanam. Many meanings. atha=now. a) Indicating time; a commencement. b) it is time to go ahead; a continuation. c) Indicating an auspicious moment. Vyāsa opens it- and clarifies that here, it is to mark a commencement; now let us commence. Having got past the run-up to yoga, we can commence with yoga. In Bh.G.Ch:6, Krishna says, “yoga will commence when we have karma-consciousness”. ie., Consciousness of what we are doing and what we ‘should’ be doing. 2.Today people commence yoga for ‘well-being, particularly of the body. This is pop-yoga. Arjuna was inducted to yoga on a battle field by Krishna, when he was utterly devastated to make a choice. Shiva advised yoga to Parvati; Lord Vis̍nu advised yoga to Laks̍mi (saubhāgyalaks̍mi Up.) All these will make us think of what is yoga. 3.Pat. Introduced yoga to the uttamādhikari. The rishis, munis, the supremely qualified. Metaphysical principle within is addressed in samprajñāta samādhi. Revelation of metaphysical principle within us is asamprjñāta samādhi. Thus, the process of clipping the functions of citta is ‘c̣itta vṛtti nirodhaḥ'. Today there is a yoga for the adhama and the anādhikari too! 4.‘Yogah ̣c̣itta vṛtti nirodhaḥ'’ c̣itta=manas+buddhi+ahaṁkāra (siddha-siddhānta paddhati) Gulabrao mahārāj says, in knowledge process, there is a subject, an object and the process of knowing. The triad of manas, buddhi and ahaṁkāra can be traced by understanding this process. Functions of manas are saṅkalpa-vikalpa. Mind itself is matter. It is inert(jada). It's function is manana (the mental activity of thought). To do or not to do; likes and dislikes; sukha and dukkha; Buddhi discerns right and wrong. Discriminates, differentiates, has viveka. It is capable of vairāgya. Manas is not the instrument of vairāgya; not capable of vairagya. Buddhi is capable of s̍ānti, saṅtoṣa and kṣamā. Kṣamā buddhi and not Kṣamā bhāva. Ahaṁkāra, the I-ness, the abhimāna. It has instrument by which the I-ness manifests. 5. Diff. between psychological mind and c̣itta. Psychological mind, which has changed in aging and growing process changes. eg., an adult does not have the 'infant mind'. Mind gives perceptions, sensations, reflections, etc. etc. This mind will be destroyed upon death. 6. C̣itta is the whole of mind-stuff and not just manas. Manas is temporary. C̣itta is eternal. It transmigrates. It carries forward with it the imprints as samskaras with the astral body. 7. C̣itta vṛttis: They have pravṛtti and nivṛtti inclinations. They give us knowledge, agitation as well get agitation, worry, anxiety; include c̣intana and manana; pre-thought and after-thought; analysis, synthesis, cognition. They give us the world of knowledge; the world of emotions, sentiments. They can be constructive or destructive; can make you or mar you. C̣itta can change Nar to Nārāyaṇa. Gives mānasikatā, bauddhikatā, bhāvanikatā. Even insanity and madness is a vṛtti of c̣itta. C̣itta hence, gives samskāras. Will carry them for endless incarnations. The mind or manas cannot carry these. But c̣itta does. 8. Sleep is also a vṛtti. Mind gets restrained there too. But mental restraint is not yoga acc to Patanjali. It is restraint of c̣itta. Otherwise it would be manovṛtti nirodhaḥ. 9. Nirodhaḥ can happen only in sam̄adhi This can happen only when the mind is sublime, neutral, depolarised. Not just when it is steady. Restraining in tranquillity, in equanimity is yoga; an equal mind having sanctity, piety, equanimity etc.

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Lezione 56

Sinossi

1.The concept of c̣itta is a great fundamental concept. Is c̣itta the mind? Mind is only a component if c̣itta. The other components are buddhi and ahaṁkāra. We need to Investigate c̣itta. It is a consciousness substance. Have a clear distinction between manas and c̣itta 2.The functions of c̣itta are: gives all mental functions of perception, cognition, imagination, memory, etc. These mental acts come from the brain. This is considered as manas. gives buddhi (intellect)…thought; this also comes from the brain. gives us our identity, the I-ness, ahaṁkāra which is its fundamental quality. gives pains and sorrows, pravrtti and nivrtti; motivates us to do something or not to do something; prerṇā and icchā, desire, all come from citta. Knowledge, understanding and misunderstanding, giving and removing agitation; anxiety, worry, c̣intana and manana come from c̣itta. Vimarsana, deliberation of thought and all thought; Vic̣aravis̍va, buddhivis̍va, bhavavis̍va. Insight and foresight, man-making and marring. C̣itta also gives saṁskaras. It gathers all impressions from many many lives. Therefore, manas+buddhi+ahaṁkāra is c̣itta. 3.There are 2 classes of c̣itta vṛtti. a) kliṣṭa b) akliṣṭa. Kliṣṭa: about mundane actions, desires and dislikes on the worldly plane. It binds us to worldliness. Sinks us to mundanity. Not necessarily agitated or afflictive vṛtti. Can be happy, delighted, yet have kliṣṭatā vṛtti. Akliṣṭa : Not necessarily non-agitated or non-afflictive. Rather, it is that which breaks the shackles of bondage; gives transcendence from mundanity. 4.There are 5 types of vrttis (pañchataiyyaḥ): pramāṇa, viparyaya, vikalpa, nidra and smṛti. All vṛ̣ttis which appear to be countless, are included in these 5 classes. C̣itta vṛttis of the internal realm need to be restrained 5.Pratyakṣa, anumān, āgama are the pramāna vṛttis. Pramāna are the valid vṛttis. It includes, knower, known and the knowing. Pramā, prameya, pramāna, pramatru. It is the subject matter of epistemology as mentioned in Patanjali’s 'pramāna’. There is a) savikalpaka pratyakṣa. b) nirvikalpaka pratyakṣa. Divya pratyakṣa and svayamjāta pratyakṣa. 6.Anumān which is inference is also a valid source of knowledge, pramāna. Inference increases knowledge. It is knowledge without direct perception.

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Lezione 57

Sinossi

Pratyakṣa pramāṇa: gandha, rasa, rupa, spars̍a and s̍abda. We have 5 senses organs for direct perceptive knowledge. ALL 5 perceptions are not of one class the way it is believed. A unique psychology and neurology is involved in each perception. Among the 5 types of direct perception, visual perceptions are very important right from birth for development. Visual impressions are very strong. Rūpa and chaks̍u pratyaks̍a. Auditory perceptions include subtler learning and understanding as compared to visual. Space or ākās̍a related to sound, is the subtlest of all elements. Gandha or smell is the grossest of perceptions, associated with the gross element of earth. It is very strong in sub-human species. Hence, knowledge depends on hearing. S̍abda pratyakṣa. No examples of mystic devotees in eastern mysticism, who are deaf. Many may be blind, lame etc., but not deaf. Ears are the doors of divinity in religious consciousness of oriental thought. Anumān pramāna or inference also greatly adds to our knowledge process. There will be different anumāna as per different perceptions. eg., knowledge of fire through visual perception. Anuman or Inference is known through a syllogism. 3 types of anumān: Vaitereki, anvayi and ubhayānavayi (concomitance, absence of concomitance and a combination of the two). One more classifications is: Pūrvavat and s̍eṣāvata anumān (a priori and a postiriori). Potency of the pramāṇa of pratyakṣa and anumān will depend on the evolution of the grey matter in the brain. Both can be valid as well as invalid. Can add to our understanding as well as misunderstanding.
 

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Lezione 58

Sinossi

Perception through sense organs: PRATYAKṢA AND ANUMĀNA as pramāṇa. 1. Pratyakṣa is a significant word. Prati=all, akṣa=eye. It implies not an individual perception, but a universally common perception. This makes the perception valid. Likewise, also for auditory perceptions. 2.There are 2 sensory aspects of an object: a) pratyakṣa is based on specifics of the object b) anumāna is based on generics of the object. 3.Mind in a qualified state needs to be sufficiently engaged in the object of perception to have a dispassionate cognition or valid knowledge. The c̣itta vṛtti decides the reception of sensory perception; perception gives rise to c̣itta vṛtti. We may experience fear seeing a lion, not because of the eyes, but because of the mind. It is the vṛtti of the c̣itta. Hence, psychology is an essential aspect of epistemology 4.Though 5 senses are considered as jñānendriyās, they seem more to be bhogendriyās, sukhendriyās and dukkhendriyās. A mystic philosopher has said, "our senses should be pillars of knowledge and not caterpillars of the world". 5.What is jñāna in adhyātma? Adhyātmajñāna is the only jñāna. All other knowledge including academic knowledge is considered ajñāna. 6.So, only when senses are in pratyāhāra, they give jñāna. Thus they become jñanendriyās (wisdom organs). 7.Pratyakṣa and anumān give a state of mind. eg., seeing a rose our mind gets delighted. The camera does not feel such delight upon sighting the rose! 8.Senses when turned inwards in pratyāhāra become c̣ittendriyās. Hence, in Bharata vars̍a tradition, they are called 'indriyas'’ i.e., belonging to the kingdom of Indra, the king of all senses and their deities. Every sense has a presiding deity. 9.This was about Indriya pratyakṣa and anumāna pramāṇas. ĀGAMA PRAMĀNA: * s̍abda prāmāṇya, āpta prāmāṇya, s̍ruti prāmāṇya are all synonyms for āgama pramāṇa. It is the testimony or word of a person in authority. * Āgama is knowledge which comes to our doorstep by trustworthy persons like ṛis̍is and munis. * Nigama is knowledge that comes through the vedās, which is knowledge at the source. * Knowledge which comes to us through our gurus is āgama. Patañjali got knowledge of yoga from the paṅcharātra āgama. It is a vaiṣnava āgama. He has given more importance to āgama pramāna. * Āgama comes through s̍ṛuti, smṛti, itihās and purāṇa. HENCE ĀGAMA ARE TESTIMONIAL PRAMĀṆAS.

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Lezione 59

Sinossi

Āgama Pramāṇa or āpta vachana is testimonial knowledge which includes scriptures and texts and words of wise persons authoritative in their field of knowledge. 1.We accept the words of those qualified and in authority. This is based on belief and faith in their authority. Some years ago we had the culture of temple discourses, called pravachan, kīrtan etc. S̍ravanam was a very strong means of transmitting knowledge. Transmitted from one who has heard a lot, called bahus̍ruta. The words of such knowledgeable ones is s̍abda. This is āgama pramāṇa. 2.Parents are the first source of oral source of knowledge. What starts with somebody's direct perception becomes agama for others. Rishi pratyaksa is āgama for us. Has great importance in knowledge which cannot be learned by the senses. Sukṣama vis̍aya jñāna, dharma jñāna, adhyātma jñāna, tattvajñāna, etc., is all āgama. 3. All s̍āstras are āgama pramāna. S̍āstra pramāṇya has enormous importance in the world we are living in. Even Sri. Kris̍ṇa says, "do not believe it because I say so; believe it because the s̍āstras say so". But even that is not enough. It should be accepted only if it convinces you and gets mounted on your intelligence. Should be accepted if it gets 'abhyudaya' and 'nisreyas'. i.e., wellness here (loka) and hereafter (paraloka), in laukika and paramārtha. 4. When a trustworthy person has transmitted knowledge by taking recourse to s̍abda, the vṛtti that happens by listening to that is āgama. Vyasa says, the āgama vaktā is the mūlavakta ie., the best and the faultless vaktā. Such a vaktā is only Īs̍vara. All s̍āstras, hence, are the vaktā or experiences of Īs̍vara. The exhalations of Īs̍vara are the words of Īs̍vara, one who has complete and faultless knowledge. Jñāna here is nirbhrama, without doubt. 5.Our source of essential knowledge has come from Ĩs̍vra. Āgama is intuitive knowledge. We know from within. Therefore, ãgama pramana come from smṛti, s̍ruti itihās, purāṇa, guruvachana, āchāryavachana, to s̍ikshaka and then from parents. 6. The way these means of knowledge work for different persons, i.e., ajñāni to bahus̍ruta is so different. However, samādhi potential is available in every c̣itta, in all psyches. Hence, though the sāmadhi potential is common to all, yet, the fructification will be different for all. Vyāsa has explained five c̣itta bhūmis: mūdha, ksipta, vikṣipta, ekāgra, niruddha. In all these bhūmis, samādhi dharma is there without exception. Hence validity of the knowledge received will depend on the c̣itta bhūmi which dominates at that time. It is so important therefore, to be in the bhūmi which will give us valid knowledge and not distorted knowledge

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Lezione 60

Sinossi

A.Classification of citta bhūmis (planes of consciousness): Citta is the locus of knowledge process. As many persons as there are, so also there are as many citta bhūmis; it is the fabric of citta. Fabric can be very coarse to very fine and silky. So also the citta. General classification: sattvic, rājasic and tāmasic citta. Vyasa has classified 5 classes of citta bhūmis, which include all possible profiles of combinations of sattva guṇa, rajo guṇa and tamo guṇa. 1. Mūḍha (dull; preponderance of tamo guṇa), 2. Kṣiptā (like a restless monkey; rajo guṇa dominates), 3. Vikṣiptā (alternates between tamo dominance and rajo dominance). Generally, most people fall in this category. 4. Ekāgra- those with excellence. Those who stand out from the common mind. They have a unique mind. A mind which is capable of yogic pursuits. A yogic mind. 5. Niruddha- citta having potential of restraint. Certainly very rich in yogic potential. Commonly believed that human nature cannot change. But that is not true in the realm of yoga. Yoga is a mind-making subject, hence, certainly the nature,’svabhāva’ can change. According to Vyasa, all samādhis are not yogic. Rāvaṇa, Kumbhakarṇa and Jayadratha are instances of some who went into a trance which was not yogic. Those in vikṣiptā bhūmi (most common persons) can certainly achieve the ekāgra bhūmi with the help of sādhanā. (References are made to written accounts of Sri.Gulābrao Māharāj, Vāchaspati Miṣra, Vijñānabhiks̍u, and of Yogabhās̍ya). Ekāgrabhūmi explained in Yogabhās̍ya. It is not only concentrated mind. It is studded with yogasādhanā and hence will weaken the karma bondages. Here, the mind is the slave of the yogi. B.Epistimology in yoga: Importance of citta bhūmi in valid perception. Validity of perception depends on the state of citta when perception takes place. eg., how do we see a rose and call it a rose? Ref:Double reflection theory of Vijñānabhiks̍u: a)The seer of the rose, knows it is a rose from previous perceptual experience and therefore perceives it as a rose. b) ‘I’ am seeing the rose, therefore it is a rose. If there is no ‘I’, there would be no perception and hence no knowledge. Here, ‘I’ refers to the mind, citta. Hence, mind is needed for perception. Mind should be qualified and fit to receive the knowledge. Eg., if mind has prejudice, the knowledge will be distorted. Suitable profile of citta is needed. Metapsychical and metaphysical factors play a role here. c)Pramāṇa vṛtti: Ref:Double reflection theory of Vijñānabhiks̍u. 'Vritti sarupyam itaratra'; reflection of the object is formed in the citta, the reflection of the object in the mind is re-reflected in the self or the ‘I’, and the ‘I’ or 'ahaṁ’ has to confirm that it is a rose because I know it is a rose. So, there is the subjective entity which has to have a corroboration with the mind. Adhyātmic question: who am I? Who is this I? I is asmitā, a kles̍a in the worldly realm. Yogasādhanā can alter this state of mind.

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Lezione 61

Sinossi

Epistimology and psychology 1.There is a recap of citta bhūmis. Different persons look at the same object but react differently because they have different states of perceptions. Psychological state of the mind will be different before and after cognition. 2.The prominence of ‘I’ plays a role in the cognition. This is an important aspect in the epistemology of Patañjala philosophy. It is not enough to know the world but need to know our ‘self’. Hence there is objectification of ‘knower’ and ‘knowing’ and not just the ‘known’ or ‘knowable’. This concept in epistemology was introduced by Nyāya s̍āstra. 3.We need to improve the 'knowing process' in us, not just the 'knowledge process'. 4.Need to have a good memory for knowledge. A good memory is one which can forget easily all that is unnecessary. Patañjali has divulged the need for forgetting. 5.Instruments of knowledge within us have to be maintained. 6.To add good thoughts is fine. But how to remove bad thoughts? Any process? Yoga has a scheme to transmute our citta bhūmi. Fabric of mind stuff can be changed. Like the railway, citta can change tacks by yoga. In this way, can remove ‘bad’ thoughts too. 7.Can be done by satsanga, satvsanga and sādhanā sanga. By sātvic āhāra, āchāra, vichāra. By learning to see '‘that'’ or the divine in every object and being, which is to have perception at a higher plane where a cow is not merely a cow; where there is no difference between a cow, elephant or a pariah. 8.The electrochemical processes in the brain will be stormed and processed. Yoga will change the very fabric of the mind. It will reconstitute the mind. It is a ‘mind-making’ science. 9.Dress designing for citta; from mudha to ks̍ipta, viks̍ipta, ekāgara and niruddha. 10.Vṛttis can be kliṣṭa and akliṣṭa. Kliṣṭa is afflictive regardless of whether it is pleasurable or painful. It reinforces the kles̍a, ṣadripus, vāsana. Akliṣṭa vrtti is one which reinforces viveka, which works for citta sampadā, discriminative discernment. It could even be painful or pleasurable. 11.Citta vṛtti in yoga is about the restraint of vṛttis in the internal realm or universe which is immeasurable. Vṛttis through pramāṇa, anumāna, āgama on the internal realm. Not the inferences and knowledge in the external world. 12.Know the knower and not just the knowables. Know the knower of the knower of the knower and so on, till you arrive at the answer. Eg. till such time as you keep peeling the layers of the onion you call it an onion. Finally, when you come to the stem of the onion, you will not call it an onion anymore, but the stem of the onion. Likewise, when we keep peeling the petals of the mind, we will arrive at the stem. 13.Āgamas will contribute, but we ourselves can become the agama, the s̍āstra, when we reach the realm of knowledge of the internal universe.

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Lezione 62

Sinossi

Pramāṇa vrtti: Pratyakṣa and Āgama: 1.Jñāna of worldly realm becomes ajñana in the spiritual realm. Quote from Bhagwad Gītā: Spiritual knowledge is the only knowledge. 2.Pain-pleasure, sukha-dukkha-moha, all experiences through pratkṣa pramāṇa. The 5 jñānendriyas give different experiences of pain and pleasure; aindriyika sukha through vaiṣeyika jñāna.This is aindriyika pratyakṣa. 3.Mānasa pratyakṣa (by mind but not of sensory object), bauddhika pratyakṣa (through buddhi) eg, knowledge of mathematics. All these can get delight which will be transcending sensory pleasures.eg., solving a mathematical problem. Likewise, there can be dukkha too, which will be non-sensory. 4.Saṁskārendriyas: through the gates of jñānendriyas, mānasendriyas and buddendriyas. Seven types of saṁskāras. 5.Bhāvananendriya (emotional organs). 6.Saṁskāras are subliminal impressions. From yoga perspective, two classes: Yutthāna saṁskāras (antagonise of Samādhi) and nirodha samskāras (protagoniser of Samadhi). We need to do saṁskāra management. Yoga practices can do it. 7.Pratyakṣa, anumān, āgama are the gates for saṁskāras. Āgama pramāṇa can engender saṁskāras of aindriyika kind. It will help stack up nirodha saṁskāras. 8.Memory can be developed by various methods like mnemonics etc. But how to develop skill for forgetting? 9.A unique realm of knowledge can be opened out by āgama. It will create yogic saṁskāras. Hence has enormous potential in yogic endeavour. Whereas our perceptions (pratyakṣa) don’t have a long-lasting effect; neither those in wakeful state or dream state. 10.Pratyakṣa and anumāna will give both, sukha as well as dukkha and moha. Āgama gives sukha but no dukkha. Can give highest kind of sukha (pleasure). Pramāṇa vṛtti works on the fabric of consciousness. They go into the memory cortex. Āgama pramāṇa has the range to go deeper in the fabric of consciousness; hence create the nirodha saṁskāras.

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Lezione 63

Sinossi

Viparayaya: Illusion
1.Apparently illusion has a simple explanation; like mistaking a rope for a snake or a lamp post for a man. But there is more to explore here. 
2.Viparyaya is considered as false knowledge. Now, theory of māyā also considers the knowledge of the phenomenal world as false knowledge or illusion (ābhāsa). The process of valid cognition and invalid cognition are the same. Then why is the result of the cognitions different?
3.Patanjali in sutra1.8, states, ‘viparyayaḥ mithyā jñānam atadrupapratiṣṭham'. Viparyaya implies that cognition is contrary to truth; the cognition of the object is not as it is. However, the false knowledge is also according to a pattern. Eg., we see only a snake instead of a rope and not an elephant. This implies that the illusion superimposed is of a known object which is similar to the object perceived. The reasons can be any co-efficient cause like, a) environmental cause, eg., poor light, Or, b) a limitation of the instrument or organ of perception.
4.The illusion can be dispelled if the distorting conditions are corrected. The process of cognition invalidating the illusion is the same as that for valid perception. Such illusions can recur.
5.Hallucination is different from illusion. This is not mistaking an object to be something else; rather it is about perceiving something in the absence of anything. This can be due to obsession, or some chemical imbalance in the brain. Once dispelled, they can occur again.
6.Meta-psychical illusions like, dukka appearing as sukha, impermanent as permanent, impure as pure etc., are also kles̍as. These are more fascinating to investigate for Pātañjalas. Such illusions, once dispelled will never have a recurrence.
7.It is known as the theory of errors (khyātivāda) in Indian philosophy. These theories provide classifications of khyātis.

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Lezione 64

Sinossi

A. Illusion: Viparyaya vṛtti. Yoga as citta vijñāna investigates deeply the vṛttis. 1. Dreams are invalidated upon waking. Till then it is not an illusion or dream as it seems to be real. There can be drṣṭānta, which is the vision of truth in sleep. A truth-divulging-dream. 2. Nidrā vṛtti is not simply sleep and dormancy (suṣupti). Untill the time that we not awakened, we are well established in that experience. 3. Viparyaya is ‘a-tadrupa jñānam’. That which is a-tadrupa, i.e., that which is not in line with the ‘rupa’ or apparent form of the object. According to philosophers, things are not as they appear but they are as they 'are’, i.e., is 'tadrupa’. The eg. of seeing a snake instead of rope is 'a-tadrupa jñāna'; Snake-ness is not the essential nature of the rope. 4. In the larger spectrum of metaphysics, everything becomes viparyaya, a-tadrupa, because all reality we know is relatively real and not absolutely real. B. Khyātivāda (theories of illusion). 1. Ātma-khyāti: vijñānavādi of buddhist thought of pan-psyche-ism. In the eg. of snake and rope, the rope is seen outside and the snake is in the mind. Illusion is in the mind. It is imposing the snake (internal knowledge) on the rope which is the external knowledge of an object. So also in the illusion of nacre (mother-of-pearl) and silver; nacre shines and appears as silver. Knowledge of silver is in the mind. This is known as an-yathā jñāna, a-sadjñāna. This thought also supports the buddhist theory of momentariness (kṣaṇikvāda). It is considered an internal illusion. 2. However, the orthodox systems of Indian philosophy do not accept this as asadjñāna or asadkhyāti (untrue knowledge), because the knowledge coming from the mind cannot be considered as untrue. It also comes through some pratyakṣa; a memory formed due to previous cognition. So, nacre is also present, silver is also present; rope is also present, snake is also present. One is through pratyakṣa/cognition and the other is through smṛti/memory. Hence, there is an element of truth as well as untruth in such knowledge. 3. It is akhyāti according to Prabhākara Miṣra of Mimāṁsakas; it is not knowledge. In nacre and silver there are two components. There is pratyakṣakhanda of some object. The other is smṛtikhanda. which is the silver in the memory. Independent of each other, both are true. Both objects are present in some form, but discrimination is absent, the viveka is absent. This absence of viveka gives the illusion. If there is discrimination, there would not be a superimposition or illusion. Hence it is akhyāti. Considering rope as snake is not knowledge. However, the refutation of this is that even ajñāna is also a kind of jñāna. 4. Anyathā-khyati; it is about vastuniṣṭhā approach of the Nyāya school of philosophy. They are positive and relists. Rope is not seen as a rope but in another form, hence it is 'anyatha’; another form of knowledge. There is also Viparita-khyāti/jnana: false cognition. 6. A classification of laukika (usual/ordinary) and ālaukika (unusual/extraordinary) is given for anyathā khyāti. 7. Sad-asada khyati of Samkhya philosophy is to follow in the next lesson.

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Lezione 65

Sinossi

Viparyaya vrtti 1.Sadasada khyāti of Saṁkhya Philosophy: Knowledge has a combination of truth as well as untruth. 2. Anirvachaniya khyāti: Inexplicable error. Error is beyond verbal description. Why so? At the time of error there is something which is right as well as wrong, true as well as untrue. Hence beyond description. Eg. Of nacre-silver: silver is existent not in the nacre, but crops up in the mind. Hence there is a concomitance. There is silver in the mind but not in the object. Likewise, there is nacre in the object but not in the mind. This is the stand of the Māyāvādins, Advaitins, also called adhyāsavādins. Māyāvada is a theory which postulates all cognition as māyā or erroneous, "Brahma satyam jagan mithya". This theory has been refuted by other vedāntins. 3.Mādhava vedantins postulate that there is nothing in this universe which is neither sat nor asat. It in fact everything is either true or untrue. Hence they refute the māyāvādins. Objects like nacre or the rope are visible objects. Only objects like 'the son of a barren woman' can be non-existent. 4.Viṣistadvaita philosophy of Ramanujacharya calls illusion sad khyāti. Even in illusion there is truth. There is enormous buddhivāda involved here. Explanation: any jñāna is sadjñāna. There can never be jñāna of an untrue object. Then why the illusion? The knowledge of all that exists is true and valid because it is pratyakṣa. However, we know things not as they are, but as they appear to us. Hence, knowledge is with regards to as things appear and not as they are. All matter exists in all matter. Therefore, a bit of silver exists in nacre too, however miniscule in proportion. This is the concept of quintuplication of the 5 elements. Panchīkarṇa of the panchatattva. Hence, all knowledge is true. Illusions also have an element if truth. Tough it will not be useful knowledge for the business of life. 5.In the pedagogy of dars̍anas̍āstra, this has not come up in Patanjali’s philosophy. However, from the sūtras, we gather, ‘atadrupa khyati’. Atadrūpa implies, that the rūpa or cognition is not as the object is, but rather as it appears to be. For the yogi, truth is only that which is revealed upon realisation. This is absolute truth, absolute knowledge. When that happens, all else appears untrue. Till then, all knowledge has relative truth for each individual. 6.The process of vṛtti is not different in illusion as compared to other vṛttis. 7.Viparyaya can be either kliṣṭa or akliṣṭa. Kliṣṭa viparyaya can give bondage and akliṣṭa can give viveka and apavarga. 8.In the internal realm there are illusions all the time until such time as the yogi climbs up the higher rung of consciousness. There is a constant process of disillusionment.

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Lezione 66

Sinossi

Non-self considered as self & Vikalpa:

*Adhyātma jñāna is the only jñāna.
*Knowing the knowable is pursuit of ajñāna.  
*Knowing the known leads to the depth of knowledge. Such a pursuit is uncommon and quite rare. Most persons are no longer interested in the known. However, those who do pursue this, they excel.
*Knowing the unknown is what most persons enthusiastically seek.
*Knowing the knower is the third dimension of knowledge pursuit.
*Knowing the ‘knowing’ is the fourth dimension which is epistemology.
*Acc to B.G. only knowing the knower is adhyātma jñāna.
* The condition of “I know” implies the subjective entity, the empirical ‘I’. It is a reflection of the self. This itself is avidyā. The reflection is not the original, like the reflection of the moon in the lake. This is a super-imposition of self on non-self. Hence such knowledge is viparyaya vṛtti. We all live in viparyaya.
* A flower is a flower in laukika perception. But who is the knower of this flower? The knower is assumed to be the empirical self. But that is an imposition of the empirical on the metaphysical. It is asmitā; a kles̍a.  This is anātmasu-ātmakhyati (the non-self is taken to be self). That is why it is perverse knowledge, ajñāna.
* In the internal realm, there is disillusionment as the illusions are discovered or realised. Hence, the Upanishads speak about this process as '‘neti'’ neti'’ '‘neti'’! Not this, not this!
* We assume that we know ourselves and hence, we need to know other things. This is the case in the mundane existence. But in adhyātma, this is not the case. The process points out that we discover that ‘I am not this, nor this, nor that. That is how the conclusion is finally reached to realising that we are ānandamaya. This is a revelation.
* Disillusionment is the only channel in the process of internal jñāna. Illusion itself becomes the path to knowledge.
* In current world, seekers of spirituality speak of anubhūti. They see some internal light, a vision and they feel they have arrived, realised. There is a false satisfaction. However, it must be considered only a step, not the end. There should be no satiation. They should go beyond. Eg. of Bhrighu rishi. 

VIKALPA: vastushunya. Imagination of a thing which does not exist. Here is a vṛtti of citta, even if such a thing does not exist eg., horn of a hare. We can think of it.
* It is an important spiritual vṛtti. The indescribable is being described. Atman does not have marks or attributes. But there is verbal expression when there is revelation. What cannot be described has been described. In spiritual process again, it is the path or ladder to knowledge. 
* But in worldly process, we want to do away with it. It is a verbal delusion. Hence is discard able. 
It can be kliṣṭa and akliṣṭa. Akliṣṭa is not discard able.

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Lezione 67

Sinossi

Vikalpa vrtti –Part 1
s̍abdajñānānupātī vastus̍ūnyaḥ vikalpaḥ:
1. s̍abdajñānānupātī : taking recourse to sabda jnana, i.e., knowledge through verbal matter.
Adhyatmic process and principles cannot be shown because there is no objective substrate. They can only be realised. There is saks̍ātkār. It is not 'seen' but 'realised'. So recourse has to be taken to s̍abdajñāna.
2.  Vastus̍ūnyaḥ: Vastu is that thing which is useful for living for the common man.
For the seekers of spirituality vastu is that which is considered as non-vastu by common man.
3.Verbal expression must have a meaning. Sentence should make sense (arthabodha). There must be a proper use of words grammatically put in a sentence, in a language known to the listener. Even if it is imagination, the language expressing it should be understandable. Only then there can be a vṛtti.
Eg. A baby makes sounds. But that is not vikalpa because it has no s̍abdajn̄āna component. It is arthas̍unya. It is not an understandable language and carries no meaning. It is only dhwanijñāna. It may be arthpūrna only for the mother who may understand the sounds which the baby makes.
4. In vyākraṇa s̍āstra, there is sphota vāda. Sphota is expression, an explosion of sound. It means to have a clear meaning. 
eg. of vastus̍ūnya is of a skyflower. There is nothing like skyflower. But by pointing to the sky and mentioning flower, it creates a vṛtti of some flower in our mind. This is vikalpa vṛtti. But this does not generate polarities of emotion of joy or sadness. There is neutrality. But if a known flower like hibiscus or rose is mentioned, it will create an emotion of like or dislike according to one's choice.
5. Classification of Sattā (entity):   pārmārthik (essential entity), s̍āstika (potential existence of entity), vyavahārika (existent in actuality) pratibhāsika (illusory existence of entity).
6. In vastus̍ūnya, there is none of the above satta. Hence it is non-existent. They cannot generate even an illusion.
7. Sentiency is a characteristic of self. Atman has no characteristic, then how come this quality of sentiency is attributed to self? This is through vikalpa. That which is indescribable, how can it be explained? Described? The way is by vikalpa. Hence it is sought after in yoga, in adhyātma.
Vikalpa can also be akliṣṭa.

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Lezione 68

Sinossi

Vikalpa: verbal delusion is an improper term for vikalpa. Is not about delusion. It is a technical term here of yoga darsana.
Heyata(rejectable) and Upādeyata of vikalpa vṛtti.
Upādeyata is embrace-worthiness of vikalpa.
Kliṣṭa vṛtti has to be weeded out. Akliṣṭa vṛtti is the foundation of samādhi.
 Animated world is mostly characterised by movement. Animate beings are hence inferred as sentient. Atman is unborn and does not die. Hence it is not the same as other sentient beings. It is sentient not because of movement, but because of the puruṣa principle. Animation is just a mark of sentiency. Atman is chaitanya. It has no delimitations. 
Vikalpa is classified as vastusunya. Vastu is a ‘thing’.  Sometimes the vikalpa can be because of a-vastu. (vastu-avastu viveka).
What is sought after by man? Materialistic pursuit like money, name, fame, glory, popularity etc. These are all actually unreal. What is vastusunya for man is the spiritual goal. Therefore, materialistic persons have no spiritual pursuit. Atman is not vastu but ‘avastu’.


NIDRĀ VṚTTI : Not to be translated as sleep.
'Abhāva pratyayālambanā vṛttiḥ nidrā'. The vṛtti that takes support of ‘cause of absence’ is nidrā. Nidrā is not suṣupti. Suṣupti is a state of consciousness and not a vṛtti. Nidrā is not an avastha,̄ but a vṛtti.
Can this vṛtti be restrained? Can sleep be restrained? In fact, we invite sleep. So, nidrā is not sleep. Sleep is kliṣṭa vṛtti. Nidrā vṛtti will have akliṣṭa vṛtti.

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Lezione 69

Sinossi

Nidrā- Normal concept is, a good deep sleep. * Vrttis are kliṣṭa and akliṣṭa. That which attenuates kles̍a and karma vāsanā is akliṣṭa vitti, it gives viveka. And, in dream-less sleep (suṣupti), there is no possibility of akliṣṭa or kliṣṭa vṛtti. * Nidrā is not just dream-less-sleep. It is, ‘Abhāvapratyayālambanā vṛttinidrā'. That which takes support of absence of the cause of vritti is nidrā. This is a kind of round-about definition. * Suṣupti is taking support of absence of jāgruti (a-wakefulness). One cannot have wakefulness and sleep at the same time. * According to neurology, when the mind enters the pericardium nerve in the heart, it is taking support of the cause of absence of a-wakefulness. This is sleep. We are all familiar with sleep. Also dream. * Dream is also a mental modification. Dream implies that you did sleep because one cannot dream unless asleep. So dream is swapnavasthā. A dreamy modulation of citta in sleep. Experience of dream is almost like an experience of wakeful state, eg., an elephant in a garden. However, there are no actual objects present in a dream. Hence there is a support of absence of the cause of the vṛtti. ie., an elephant. Why is swapna vṛtti not included by Patañjali? Because swapna is included in nidrā. Without sleep condition there cannot be a dream.  But there can be day-dreaming. Being in reality conditions and being aware of it cannot be day-dreaming. Day-dreaming can be of dreaming of conditions different from the currently experienced conditions. It implies very strong desires and wishful thinking. Eg., a weak person can dream of being strong and poor can dream of being rich. Murchha avasthā is unconscious or a partly conscious state (due to various reasons). Here also there is an absence of alertness. The maxim of concomitance and exclusion is applied here. Unlike in illusion, the experience is not negated upon realisation of the illusion. Upon waking from a dream, the object of dream is not invalidated. An elephant in the dream is like an elephant in reality too. In deep dreamless sleep, there are vṛttis. There is no complete shut-down of the brain. That is why we have a memory of a deep sleep upon waking up.

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Lezione 70

Sinossi

Nidra vrtti-Part 2. 1.According to Upanishads, when the enters pūritat nādi, sleeps ensues. 2.Vyāsa’s classification of nidra/suṣupti: 1. dreamless sleep 2. sleep filled with dream 3. sleep like a dull stupor. When the blanket of sleep slowly covers us, there is a transitory state from wakeful to sleepy state and vice versa. There may not be dreams, but swapna avasthā is always there. Swapna vṛtti (dream) is different from swapna avasthā (dreamy state). 3.When vṛttis give rise to karma and viṣaya vasāna they are kliṣṭa vṛttis. Those which weaken karma and viṣaya vāsanās and bring viveka are akliṣṭa vṛttis. 4.We know only our own wakeful state which is like knowing the surface of the ocean but not the depth. It brings limited awareness. The dream world is much vaster. It is like a large ball, not just a surface. It is mysterious and we are not able to know much about it, nor is there any excitement to investigate into it. But yoga and Vedānta have explored dream. 5.According to S̍astra, knowledge of dreams can come to us only through āgama (words of the wise, knowledgeable and the realised ones, through their literature). Various such literature is available. This knowledge is very essential for citta prasādam. 6.Dream world can break the barrier of reality; the difference between factual and actual conditions. Factual reality is vyavahārika jñāna. eg., One may dream of ruling the entire world, but may never be able to make it an actuality because of the limitations of the body and other physical conditions. But in sleep and dream these barriers don’t exist hence one can become that ruler; this experience can be fructified in dream. This is swapna s̍ṛṣti and nidrā s̍ṛṣti. This brings citta parikarmā. Without this citta parikarmā there cannot be progress towards samādhi process. 7.Ṛṣis and munis have been through this parikarmā. Their gospels help us to understand these concepts. Veda and Vedānta s̍āstras are the sources for us too. These sleep and dream worlds are indeed universes vaster than the one we know of. 8.We know what is sleep from books on neurology but that is only paltry knowledge. The vast knowledge is a mystery for us. 9.Can there be akliṣṭa vṛtti in sleep? Yes, there is akliṣṭa citta vṛtti but no akliṣṭa manovṛtti. Hence, it has potentials to give viveka. A dull person can solve a difficult mathematical problem in dream. Sometimes, many solutions come in dream, even for intellectual problems because we can get out of the box and break physical shackles. Just as we can't see stars in the day because they are not brighter than the sun, but they still exist, so also there is a reality we are not aware of in our wakeful state but can be aware of in a dream state. 10.Dṛṣṭanta swapna are dreams of sagely persons and seers. Dṛṣṭ-anta=beyond the end of sight. Most spiritual or philosophical insights come in dreams. They may be allegoric. Can be interpreted by dream interpreters. Example from Up: Just as a date with your beloved gives an exhilarating experience, likewise, in dream jivātman gets into a warm loving embrace with the paramātman. It is a superlative experience. This will certainly give akliṣṭa vṛtti. Hence, nidrā is not a tāmasic vṛtti.

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Lezione 71

Sinossi

1.Nidrā circumscribes nidrā and swapna vṛtti as well as nidrā and swapna avasthā. 2.Sukha and dukkha vṛttis are present in sleep and dream. 3.Deep sleep, dream and comatose state (murchha) all are included in nidrā avasthā. 4.Vedanta gives us s̍ruṣti of jagrut avastha, but also lists swapna s̍ruṣti. The places perceived or visited in a dream may not be geographically present on the maps. However, it is real while in the dream and may even have some similarities to an actual place. This is swapna sristi. 5.Who is the creator of this swapna s̍ruṣti? Acc to Upniṣads, HE, is the creator. In this creation, we are having no delimitations, no qualifications, not even a name. Therefore, the one who sleeps has no name, gender, status, class etc. Who are we then? We just are ‘beings’. There is no nāma rūpa. One cannot say “I saw a dream”. It is not true. Because the one who saw the dream was not you with the limitations of identities. The one who is sleeping and dreaming is not you. 6.Swapna s̍ruṣti is not part of the cosmology of modern science. This cosmology that is known to science is more chaos than cosmos. 7.Sleep is energising. Like dating with your beloved. It gives extra freshness. This is also a vṛtti. 8. Right and wrong in dream state: Now, one might say that I don’t take any responsibility for certain acts performed in dream because I did not commit that with conscious acceptance. However, the vṛtti was present there. It becomes a part of our karma. Dream readers may be able to advice as to how the karmaphala of that dream activity can be taken care of by performing certain ceremonies etc. Dharma s̍āstra can inform us as to what should be done. Eg., a thanks-giving gesture. 9.Yogs̍āstra, moks̍a s̍āstra, dharma s̍āstra, upasana s̍āstra are the texts to refer to. We may not ourselves be qualified to interpret them later in our wakeful state. Hence, take recourse to s̍āstra. 10.Nidra circumscribes Suṣupti as well. Two theories describing suṣupti which is dreamless sleep. a)Sravana siddhānta. Theory of fatigue i.e. Fatigue may induce good sleep. b)Laya siddhānta. Theory of absorption i.e, grosser aspects of the embodiment get absorbed in the subtler aspects. Thus, sleep sets in (eg., for older people who can’t work hard). 11.A person may be wise or stupid. But in sleep that does not remain. A wise person may be stupid in a dream and a mediocre person can solve very intelligent problems in dreams. Eg., of the mathematician Rāmanuja. Thus, all delimitations are cut off in sleep. 12.Sleep involves citta vṛtti and not manovṛtti. Its like going to the bottom of an ocean which has so many fascinating aspects. 13.The 3 states; Samādhi, suṣupti and moks̍a are all brahmarūpa. They are similar states according to the Upaniṣads. Thus sleep is not just a dull state of consciousness. Sleep takes us to the excursion of nirvana. 14.If a choice is to be made between endless riches but no sleep, one would choose sleep. Because no amount of riches can compensate for sleep. Sleep is not just a restful condition but it gives immense happiness.

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Lezione 72

Sinossi

Creation and explanation of creation
1. According to science
2. According to mysticism. Swapna sṛṣti. In dream state the formations of images are not real but like a laser show. The material of these objects is not physical as in our physical world. They are only light effects. Hence it is Prajñya. Dreamless sleep=nidrāvastha.
3. Acc to Vyasa: 'sukham' is the reason why we say "I had a very good sleep". So what is that sukha? It is the embrace with the divine. Wealth, gold and diamonds cannot give that happiness and delight that sleep can bring. No one will be ready to exchange wealth for giving up sleep. Sleep is a date for the essential ‘I’ with the beloved which is divinity. This brings an enormous degree of happiness. This is Brahmananda, which is beyond the joys of heaven. It is beyond the pleasures of the terrestrial plains. This happens in swapna s̍ṛṣti.
4. Quotes from: Kaivalya Upaniṣad; Bruhudāraṇya Upaniṣad; Sāṅkhya sūtra.
5. In state of sleep, we go to the abode of the creator. But gross body (sthula s̍arīra) is unable to realise or recognise this difference because it is boxed in its own limited conditioning, a sleepy state. But the kārana (causal) and sukṣma (subtle) s̍arīra takes a dip into that bliss of going to the divine abode and enjoys enormous delight and joy in the dreamless sleep. Therefore, dreamless seep is not a state of void.
6. S̍ramaṇa siddhanta: Theory of fatigue. Sleep due to tiredness of body or of intellect, of senses. Laya siddhānata: Theory of absorption. Subtle getting absorbed into subtler and subtler till everything is absorbed in prāṇa. Prāṇa is the dissolvent.
7 Smṛti: it is not memory as misunderstood by most.

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Lezione 73

Sinossi

1.Smṛti is not memory and memory is not smṛti. Memory is a part of smrti vrtti.
2.Citta is vast and deep like an ocean. Can see the activity on the surface but cannot see what is within. Likewise,there are smṛtis in the conscious, subconscious and ultra-conscious mind.
3.Smṛti is not mnemonic memory. It is deep in the saṇskāra kos̍a. There can thus be smrti paris̍uddhau.
4.Can recall past life because of it. Helps to recall minute details.
5.Memory refers to empirical, temporal memory.
6.A memory of 25 yrs ago can surface instantly without having to rewind over all the 25 years.
7.In absence of other vṛttis, i.e., pramāṇa, viparyaya, vikalpa and nidrā, smṛti could not exist. Smṛti is constituted by the body of the earlier 4 vṛttis. There cannot be a memory without the substrate of an earlier vṛtti. 
8.Smṛti keeps the mind engaged even if there is no other vṛtti taking place. The senses too are kept engaged by smṛti. Memory is a great bounty. It provides inputs to mind. Can we imagine the memory card removed from our psyche and how much will we be disadvantaged because of that?
9.Memory has a twin which is recognition. We sometimes remember, but cannot recognise. Brings about an uncomfortable condition. Pratyabhigña is recognition. 
10.Memory can also be a turmoil. Especially for persons who are light sleepers where memory can play havoc.
11.Another role of memory is that even if we do not have any sorrow in our lives, memory can bring sorrow. Imagination can also bring sorrow.
12.Smṛti is of and can sprout delusion; sukha, dukkha, moha. It can be sukha, dukkha, moha and jñāna kāraka as well as smṛti kāraka, karma kāraka.
13.Memory is cause of as well as can be the infra structure as well as the supra structure. There is coveted memory as well as unwanted memory.
14.Sorrow, pleasure, can be put aside by memory. It can instate pleasure and sorrow. 
15.If pleasures cling on to you, smṛiti can brush it aside.
16.Smṛti contributes for intuition, pratibhā.
17.Smṛti can trigger off certain activity.
18.Is useful for easing out the business activities of life (vyavahāra saukarya). It gives meaning to life because of the storage of memory. 
19.Memory gives recognition. It removes ignorance; gives meaning to our baggage of experience. That brings wisdom in life.
20.Memory keeps us alert and awake (satark and jāgruk) 
So far we have not differentiated smṛti and memory. This was a general enunciat

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Lezione 74

Sinossi

Synopsis of Lesson 74: Smṛti
A.Memory is always with regard to our experiences. There cannot be a memory of something not experienced. (anubūta visayā). We have multiple experiences every moment. All do not form imprints strong enough to form memory. Fortunately, so, otherwise too many memories will jostle for space. Not all memories surface all the time. Only those which get manifested due to a trigger, a cause. At the same time, not only those which surface are our memories. There are plenty which remain dormant till they have a cause for manifestation.
B.Impressions of experiences should neither be stolen or lost. Only then they will form memory. Some memories can be lost if the experience is not very strong. This is a boon, else one can be very disturbed with too many memories bombarding us, particularly those we wish to loose. The only way to loose a memory can be by Divinity. The one who steals is the ‘citt-chor’. The thief of our citta. ‘Steynānām pattaye namo namaha’ from Rudrapras̍na. Only a saint, the Divine, can rob our memory.
Life will end but memories will not end. They transmigrate to the next life. This is the karma siddhānta. 
C.Vyāsa: 2 factors of memory. a) The object         b) knowledge of the object.
Eg., Camera has no opinion of the image it captures. The human mind does. It makes a judgement about the object. Mind can have likes and dislikes. Different minds will have different opinion for the same object. Hence, memory is the image of the object as well as knowledge of it as perceived by the perceiver. When memory is triggered, both the factors surface. Smṛti is one side of the coin. The other side is buddhi. When sighting an elephant, one will recall the memory of the sight of elephant along with the memory of where and in what conditions it was sighted. Memory is about the time-space situation.
D.Memory is of 2 kinds: a) in dreams. It is imaginary in a dream. B) in wakeful state. 
The wakeful state is the real smṛti. But this vṛtti is only possible if it has been experienced. Either by pramāṇa, viparyaya, vikalpa or nidrā. These can offer memory. Hence memory is at 5th place, being generated by the earlier vṛttis. These memories can be kliṣṭa or akliṣṭa. Can be generating sukha, dukkha or moha. This is kliṣṭa smrti and must be restrained first at the very outset. Akliṣṭa smṛti must be embraced, nurtured and harvested. Only in Samādhi it will be restrained.
E.Smṛti samskāras must be strongly built up. Then memory will be strong. Vis̍aya (subject), anubhava(experience) and prasanga (situation) should be strong. 
Memory can give pleasure, joy, delight, sorrow etc. in the absence of actually experiencing it. It can turn sorrow into joy. Develops intelligence, gives recognition, removes ignorance, gives alertness and awareness. The manifesting cause will make the memory surface.

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Lezione 75

Sinossi

Smrti vrtti -3
1.Smṛti is a deep and wide concept. There is smṛti of manas, smṛti of buddhi, smṛti of ahaṁkāra. Acc to Vyasa, smrti is with ref to objects (vis̍aya smṛti) and buddhi (jñāna smrti) i.e, knowledge of that object. Grāhyakāra and grahaṇakārya. Therefore, smṛti khanda+jñāna khanda=smṛti vṛtti.
2.Manas component and buddhi component and ahaṁ component in pratyakṣa anumāna āgama have to be considered. In different impositions the profile of the pronoun I (ahaṁ vṛtti) will depend on our emotion in pratyakṣa. These will be the citta vṛttis.
3.Unreal dreams and real dreams, eg. of yogis (dṛṣtānta swapna). Accordingly, the smṛti can be of false experience (bhāvita smṛtavya) or real experiences (abhāvita smrtavya). In dreams, there is kalpita viṣaya. Kālpanika, imaginary.
4.P.Y.S. ch:4 'smṛti saṁskārayoho eka rupatavāt'’
Experience is locus of smṛti. This includes experiences not only in this life but in our existence from time without beginning. Therefore, avoid negative thoughts. Vāsanas surface in different stages of life. Eg., biological stages like adolescence. Likewise, there can be other manifesting causes.
5.Body is renewed after death. How will the skills come in the new body? Through the memory. There is memory of our characteristics. There is body memory as part of citta memory. Eg, though some fruits like mango are seasonal, our body still remembers the taste even in other seasons, body remembers how to digest it, even after many years. Like that, memory remains for many many lives.
6.Smṛti kos̍a is unfathomable. It includes not only memories collected by us in this life but also of imprints from all our past lives, as well as that which we receive from our ancestors of all the generations before us (karma kosha). That is why we have resemblance in characteristics of behaviour and looks with our ancestors. According to Ayurveda, each individual gets 3 aspects (kos̍as) from father and 3 from mother (s̍atkaus̍ika deha). This is also why 2 children from the same parents can be so very different. Even if a pair of twins look alike, they have their individual baggage of karmas and hence they can be very different in nature.
7.Each of the s̍at chakrās have their own scheme of saṁskāra vāsānas too.eg., moolādhāra vāsanā.
8.Just as, from a lump of clay we can fashion a pot, an elephant or a mansion. Likewise, saṁskāras are nothing but forms of vṛtti. Citta has manifestation of saṁskāras and same citta has manifestation of vṛttis. Smṛti and saṁskāras have one form.
9.According to eschatology, depending on what memory surfaces at the point of death, we will take that form. It is all chaittic smṛti. 
10.There is buddhi paris̍uddhi, there is smṛti paris̍uddhi. Through this, the knowledge will float up like butter on buttermilk. This could happen soon, or after many years or even generations.
11.Memories have a way of manifesting ‘out-of-the-blue’. Appears causeless, but that is in fact, not true.

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Lezione 76

Sinossi

Mnemonic memory is not smṛti Remembering is not memory
What we can could and should remember is memory. It implies the inclusion of all the dormant imprints.
Reference to Dhruva smrti of chandogya upnisad. It is unwavering like a pole star. There can be only one such memory. That of divinity
Need to escape materiality to enter reality. From a ‘down to earth’ point of view good memory implies not only the ability to remember but also the ability to forget that which need not be remembered. This is good for our own well-being.
The manifesting cause of smrti is called svavyanjaka karanam
Gautam of nyāyas̍astra has a long list of 27 manifesting causes in the 3rd chapter his Gautam-sutras.

  •        *    Pranidhāna - concentrated endeavour, high priority will keep us reminded of that thing
  • Nibandha- relevant references to a particular topic. eg., thought of ahimsa will surface memory of satya
  • Abhyāsa - constant thinking of something particular
  • Linga - mark brings the memory of the marked eg. The Puneri topi reminds us of Lokmanya Tilak
  • Lingi – The marked also, likewise, can cause the memory of the mark
  • Laks̍aṇa - characteristics and characterised.
  • Sadrus̍ya - similarity or likeness
  • Parigraha- relationship between a pair eg. swami and sevaka. Could be concommitance i.e, anvayivyaitireka or could be exclusion
  • Sambandha -relationship between two objects or persons such that by remembering one, the other gets remembered. eg., friends who are always seen together.
  • Anantarta - sequencing. An order of appearance triggers memories
  • Viyoga - separation. Eg. beloved having saṁyoga (union) thinks of the other upon separation.
  • Ekakārya- reminded of another who performs a similar function
  • Virodha- when something or condition is in counter- position of another
  • Atishayata- someone excelling in a field will always be remembered if that field is remembered.
  • Prāpti - an earnestness or even obsession to gain or achieve will always bring up the memories
  • Vyavadhāna- an association eg, seeing the sheath one is reminded of the sword
  • Sukkha - joy
  • Dukkha - fear
  • Icchā - desire
  • Dves̍a - aversions
  • Bhaya - fear
  • Arthikattva
  • Prayojakattva- need, a purposeful want
  • Kriyā- action reminds of karatā, the actor
  • Rāga- attachment
  • Dharma- saṁskāras eg. child prodigy
  • Adharma- evil and criminal tendencies

These are 27 causes for constitution of smṛti and manifestation of smṛti
Vais̍eṣika sutra says, a particular association of mind and ātman triggers smṛti

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Lezione 77

Sinossi

1.Smṛti generates vṛtti of citta. Smṛti seems to be erratic and appears unexpectedly. However, smṛti needs a manifesting cause. It cannot be otherwise. Eg. In a grocer’s store triggered off by a memory 25 years old. This is because spanda or vibration of another person’s memory who is in your physical space radius could set off certain thoughts in your mind. Memory manifesting without a cause would be a huge problem for us. This is svavyanjakānjana kāraṅam. 2.Smṛti vṛtti can be klista, ones giving rise to the s̍adripus, reinforcing bondage and mundanity. They could be akliṣta, which will enfeeble and mitigate the kliṣṭa vrttis. They give rise to viveka, vairāgya and nirodha saṁskāras, suppressing vyuthāna samskāras and giving rise to paramārthika saṁskāras. 3.Quintisential yoga is founded on smṛti vṛtti. All yoga till asampragñāta yoga is founded on smṛti vṛtti. 4.One of the connotations of meditation is smṛti. Smṛti is the material for supra-conscious state, turiya avasthā, samādhi avasthā. 5.Smṛti also facilitates the business activity of life. Smṛti is an important component of knowledge structure. Patañjali mentions dharmamegha samādhi, viveka khyāti. This is smṛti vṛtti. Patañjali mentions dhruvā smṛti; a steady smṛti. 6.Nirodha and vyutthāna samskāras are smṛti. Dhyana is also smṛti. Smṛti occupies the citta for dhārna, dhyāna and samādhi. 7.Smṛti from the fabric of ahaṁkāra, manas and buddhi is very different. 8.Final smṛti vṛtti is for asamprajnata samādhi.

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Lezione 78

Sinossi

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 1)

1.Smṛti is anubhut viṣayā. Nāma Smaraṇam is also anubhuta viṣayā. The experience has been with us in the past lives. When we take the name of divinity, that is smaraṇam. It is a saviour. Smaranam is therefore an inflection of the word smṛti. so we have to take a lot of recourse to smaraṇam. 2.Meditation is always on noble, thoughts, trans mundane thoughts. Cannot meditate on anything which we cannot have a smaraṇam of. Can happen in satsanga, sādhanā sanga and sattva sanga. Mananam is also smaraṇam. Nāma smaraṇam, 3.Divinity is an omnipresent principle. It has been permeating creation in all the eras up till anādikāla. Therefore, everyone has experienced the divine vibrations. There is pratyabhjña. Everyone has experienced, but not recognised. It may take a while to do this. Non-recognition is due to avidyā. what is temporary is considered permanent and vice versa. In ātman-jñāna, there is recognition of oneself. This would only be possible if there is a memory. Then there can be smaraṇam. 4.Gospels of saints tell us that divinity is everywhere because they have experienced it. Upanishadic quotation: “If you say you do not know, then you know. If you say you know, then you do not actually know.” 5.Dhārṇā, dhyāna and samādhi are all based on smṛti. Meditation needs a profound thought; a thought which has been thought over or experienced very often and deeply. 6.Smaraṇam has enormous resources of akliṣṭa vrttis. This becomes matter for dhyāna. It is all smṛti. Āgama pramāna is matter for us to remember; hence smṛti. Smṛti of these gives akliṣṭa vṛtti. by constant ponderance, smṛti paris̍uddhi takes place. 7.Akliṣṭa smṛti is to be nurtured, kliṣṭa smṛtis to be sent into oblivion. This is restraining of citta. Need to restrain the enfeebling vṛttis of kāma, krodha, lobha, moha, mada, matsarya. 8.How to restrain? That is the moot question. Taper off mundane activities. Sleep also does that. Taper off. Citta is not like a switch which can be put off. So, restrain contaminated vṛttis and gather SUBLIME vṛttis. Then there can be nirodha. Hence, quieten, steady, tranquilise, ennoble, make pious and sublime the mind; an equanimous mind will get us there. 9.Pat. Says, abhyāsa and vairāgya are the means for citta vṛtti nirodha. Citta is ocean and mind is only like the periphery of it. So, stabilise that mind. Citta will get besteadied.

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Lezione 79

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 2)

Sinossi

Means of restraint of citta 1.Yogic restraint is not by switching off the button of citta vrtti. This may be possible by neuro engineering or anesthetic techniques or by drugs, but not in yoga. 2.For citta or even just the mind to be restrained, we need to take recourse to organic methods. Worldly mind will not be fit for yogic process. Tapering and neutralizing is required to quieten the mind. Patañjali has suggested citta parikarma, i.e, To make the mind placid for sublimity and piety. 3.Mind can be disengaged only if it is engaged with supports which are tranquilizing. Mind must have support for becoming immaculate, pure, virgin noble. Such supports evolve the means of restraint. 4.Patañjali Introduces us to these supports by the concepts of abhyāsa and vairāgya. Abhyāsa is be-steadying the psychological, empirical and temporal mind by various methods. When passion or anger is felt, we are aware of our own condition. Likewise, when experiencing pleasures and sorrows, we are very much aware of it. Likewise, when mind is quiet, we know that our mind is quiet. Mind reads itself. Hence, mind is divisible and plays two roles; the knower and known. All efforts towards the process of be-steadying the mind is abhyāsa. Eg., taking support of anything sublime will quieten the mind. 5.Abhyāsa is not about the practice of āsana and praṇāyāma. Abhyāsa includes satsanga, sādhanā sanga and nāma japa, mantropāsanā, mantra s̍ravaṇa, s̍āstrasanga, reading a book with philosophical content. Indirectly, also inclusion of sattvic āhāra-vihāra, āchāra-vichāra is also abhyāsa. Mind becomes sublime if the material of mind is sublime. Thus it is an organic process. It can work immediately or 'mediately'; but work it will. eg., if glandular system, nervous system, endocrine system work in a bizarre way, what will be the condition of the mind? Āsanas can certainly trigger the physiology to develop potential, at the same time the other factors are also required. 6.Vairagya is to have dispassion and not hanker and run after the pleasures if life. But, if they come your way, you can take them. The methods of vairagya are the same as that for abhyāsa. Abhyāsa and vairāgya are not separate practices or means. They are connected like the two wings of a bird. The two twin means for restraining the citta. Thus, the partibhāsika or technical meaning of this must be understood 7.The more the mind is out-going, the more distant it is from vairāgya. Bahirmuki is to be out-going. Yogic process is antarmukhi, going inwardly. It should encourage practices for this; to be inwardly. 8.In Bh.G ch:6 on abhyāsa and yoga, Arjuna asks Kris̍na a question, “mind by nature is chanchala, naughty, almost a vandal. It is very difficult to control this mind; like controlling the wind. How can we restrain this mind?” Kris̍na agrees saying, yes, it seems impossible, but is not impossible. It can be done by abhyāsa and vairāgya. They are the magic means. Hence abhyāsa and vairāga cannot be dubbed just as practice and dispassion. 9. When these means are not applied and even then if there is a restraint of the mind, that is not yoga.

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Lezione 80

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 3)

Sinossi
Restraint(nirodha) of citta vṛtti:
1.  Restraint of mind on the plane of common man is in sleep. In dreamless sleep, psychological mind is at rest, but not citta. Physiological systems get no respite from birth to death. But mind, gets some respite during sleep. Mano vṛtti will definitely include citta vṛttis.
2.  Necessary to be familiar with Vais̍nava āgama to understand Patañjali’s work, because Patañjali was indoctrinated in yoga through Paṅchrātra āgama in Vaikuntha by Sri. Nārāyaṅa.
Pat.’s exposition is not about restraint on psycho-mental plane. Study and practice of yoga is not like studying other subjects. Because yoga is not to be studied and done; rather it is done on you. Here, you learn and study about yourself and not about something outside of you.  As an art student, you may paint, but you don't become the painting. But yoga is done on you till you become yoga.
Till this is understood, it is only a run-up to yoga; but not yoga.
3.  As a student of physics or bio chemistry, we learn about these process outside our bodies; in laboratories, class rooms, in natural environs. But we don’t learn these on ourselves.
In yoga, the observed is inside, within yourself. Thus you are learning about yourself, in yourself, by yourself. Hence yoga is a heuristic subject where the student and teacher is within.
4. Pramāṇa, viparyaya, vikalpa nidrā, smṛti is not what needs to be restrained. These are to be understood by epistemology. They are about the world outside us. It is about laukika jñana.
According to Patañjali what needs to be restrained are the vṛttis in the internal realm. It is about āntarika jñana. Because in yoga you have no relationships outside yourself. You are nobody to nobody.
You are nobody to anybody; nobody is anybody to you; Everybody is nobody to you; you are nobody to everybody.
5.Yoga is not a life-style like going to a work-place daily. Yoga is not a workout. It is a work-in where the culture is completely different.
6. In Upanis̍ads, 4 states of consciousness- jāgrut, swapna, sus̍upti and turiya. Turiya is an accomplished yoga avasthā. It is transcendent consciousness, named supra-consciousness by Sri Aurobindo. A state which transcends all delimitations and definitions of gender, class, caste, ethnicity, age, time etc. The barriers of time and space are transcended. This is the internal journey.
7.  Chaturvyuhas of the Pāncharātra Āgama describe the 4 states of consciousness. Jāgrut= aniruddha, swapna=pradyumna, sus̍upti=sankars̍ana, turiya=vāsudeva 
8. In jāgrut avasthā the ‘I’ness cannot be restrained. It can never cease to reflect. Hence, aniruddha (not possible of niruddha, unrestrainable). If awareness of self is lost in jagrut avasthā, it would be a psychologically diseased condition. 
Swapna or dream state is just a game of illuminations. Hence, pradyumna.
Sus̍upti is the state where we are in a deep sleep state where we are nobody to nobody. We are sucked into the strong gravity of that state. Like being sucked into a black hole. When there, you become the black hole. There is no escape. Hence it is samyak kars̍anam=sankars̍ana. All in this condition are in samyak state, unified in para Vāsudeva. Identity is erased at that point Therefore, ‘Vāsudevam idaṁ sarvaṁ’.
Turiyā avasthā is beyond the above three. It is Vāsudeva. Hence yoga can commence only when the barriers of jāgrut, swapna and sus̍upti avasthā have been broken.
9.  Therefore, restraint is about the universe within, the microcosm, and not about the panchataiyya vrttis (empirical vṛttis) of the macrocosm. Yoga is not about jāgrut avastha. It is about yoga avastha. The twilight state of consciousness, before entering the turiyā avasthā.
10. References are made to the Vāsudeva of the Bhagwad Gitā. 
11. Our yoga is to keep at bay the sadrirus-kama, krodha, moha, mada, matsarya. Then move up the ladder.
 
 
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Lezione 81

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 4)

Sinossi

Cittavṛtti nirodhopāya: 1. Citta for common man is just mind. Citta is abstract which most find difficult to comprehend. Mind is more concrete and hence can try to understand restraint of the mind. 2. Two means in pursuit of yoga: abhyāsa & vairāgya. 3. These are for the mind which is internalising. 4. As a tormenter, the mind of a materialist is different vs. mind of the spiritualist; old vs. young person; aspiring and ambitious vs. passive and non-aspiring etc. Therefore, also different in different stages of life, different conditions in life, be it social or economic or emotional or health or personal. The graph of the mind in all these can be spiking up and down. 5. General respite to such a tormented mind are mostly, entertainment or a relaxant or even intoxicant. Sleep is very often a great stress buster and can give short time relief from such torment. It is a leveller which works in a fair manner to everyone regardless of status or class. 6. Patañjali advocates means to be-steady the mind which will also rest the mind. 7. Ordinary man looks only for a short time relaxation from the vexation. The yogi wishes to be-steady the mind for Samādhi. This is because the mind of the yogi is not so alien to him, nor is he harassed by it. 8. That which is done to steady the mind/citta is abhyāsa. 9. A child may be appeased with a cookie or chocolate. But that won't work for an adult. Likewise, as a neophyte in yoga, we need respites like cookies. So, a child, a young adult, an older person, a senior citizen, all will need different techniques/measures to steady the mind. Same will be the case with a healthy vs. debilitated person, a person bubbling with desires vs. one who is serene and so on. 10. Any measure to dispassionate the mind and to make it thirst less is vairāgya. This again will differ from a common man to a yogi. The mind has to be lulled and measures for this will differ among individuals depending on their level of consciousness. 11. Druṣṭa and anus̍ravikā visayas- seen and unseen passions. Depending on the type, justification and intensity of the passion the means may be applied. Then it can be managed. It cannot be done by strangulating the passion by starving the senses. Even if senses are thwarted the mind continues to graze. This is not the correct means. 12. Abhyāsa and vairāgya are like two wings of a bird. Just as a bird cannot fly with one wing, so also neither abhyāsa nor vairāgya can work without support of the other. "abhyāsa vairāgyabhyām tannirodhaḥ".

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Lezione 82

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 5)

Sinossi

Cittavṛtti upāya: Abhyāsa and vairāgya Naïve to believe that continuing with what we know is abhyāsa. Effort by kāyā, vāchā and manasā to be-steady the mind. What do we do and can do to be-steady the mind? Would it be different effort and means for different conditions? For: a. a sātvic, a rājasic and a tāmasic individual? b. for a man or for a woman? c.for the kṣipta, vikṣipta and mūdha bhūmis of mind. Likewise, ekāgra and niruddha bhūmis. d. through diff stages of life: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old-age. e. with different economic conditions f. with different health conditions g.With different astrological conditions as well as environmental conditions h.With different cultural inheritance and ethnic background It appears that there could be a lot of thought required for selection of the correct means for be-steadying the mind. Yoga technology offers an easy solution-the magic trick: When an individual goes into a deeper condition, eg., in deep sleep, all the above listed differences fall off, disappear, because these are only surface differences applicable to mundane life. Eg., if you go 500 kms under sea level in the ocean, it will be all the same whether it is the Indian Ocean or the Atlantic Ocean. Latitudes, longitudes etc., make no difference to the atmosphere inside. Likewise, yoga makes us ‘antarmukhi’, looking-inwards. Yoga is an internal process. There is no peripheral yoga. The modern trend of sectioning yoga for children, yoga for old age, yoga for prisoners etc., is not appropriate. Yoga moves from diversity to unity. Does not divide sections of society, humanity. It looks at the oneness rather than superficial differences. Our ‘I’ness has to be dislodged, then all peripheral factors drop off. Yoga is not about going to surface with postures or āsanas or by controlling the breath. Drug addiction is a search for steadying the mind. For want of better means and lack of knowledge of yoga, one takes recourse to drugs. One could use un-yogic, non-yogic and yogic techniques to be-steady the mind. Bh.Gita: “One who tries to restrain the mind by taking recourse to yogic means, the effect is that atman gets into ātman, to experience the bliss of atman into atman”. The word yoga means, to come together. It brings together the body, mind, psyche, consciousness; all that is you and yours, come together to get kneaded into a unique matter. Analogy of the making of a cup of tea is used to explain the concept to kneading, blending. Arjuna’s complain to Kris̍na about being asked to do something which is so very difficult and Kris̍na’s answer to that question. The understanding of abhyāsa and vairāgya.

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Lezione 83

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 6)

Sinossi

Abhyasa-the means to restrain the mind. 1.Delimiting factors of caste, class, gender, status, ethnicity etc. cause a lot of ripples and turmoil on our consciousness. On a deeper plane, we overcome them hence it becomes easy to be-steady the mind. 2.In a federal condition, there are lots of conflicts with mind and intellect, tendencies of body and mind etc. In the awakeful state of mind we are fragmented. Eg., of chariot and many horses pulling it. But, in a unified or kneaded condition, there is no such conflict. 3.Becoming antarmukhi, like going to the depths of the ocean, all this disappears. But if one is wakeful and surrounded by conflicting conditions, advocating vairāgya would be silly. But if the conditions are changed, eg., going to a sleepy state, then there would be no problem. 4.If body is in kinetic or restless state, how can we expect steadiness of mind? Hence, first, steady the body, then mind may be steadied. Yoga has a technology for this. Draw out the potentials of the body so it does not remain an alien to us. Yogāsanas can do this. Body will get steadied and contribute to be-steading the mind.eg., s̍irsāsana, sarvāngāsana, s̍avāsana. Also, kriyās and mudrās can contribute to this. The biochemistry is changed by these practices. The endocrine system and glands are accessed and their secretions managed. The esoteric anatomy and physiology is accessed and the mind is thus accessed. The various centres(chakrās) become mind conditioners to be-steady and dispassionate the mind. 5.In a battlefield condition the body and mind is in turmoil; kuruks̍eta. But when in yoga it becomes a dharmask̍etra; in a sublime state like in the sanctum sanatorium of a shrine. Mind becomes a teerthaks̍etra or divyades̍am. 6. Yogasanas are not really postures. Body takes a posture in all conditions; whether travelling or standing in ques or exercising or just sitting. Asanas are not just such positions. They are positions which work on the endocrine ductless glands. Likewise, there are also esoteric glands. They are granthis which are not part of the physiological systems. The system of yoga technology works on these too. 7. All organs have the potential to become dhyāna organs, samadhi organs. The body has all potentials for a shrine conditions. 8. Transformation cannot take place in jāgrutavastha or aniruddha-avasthā. There needs to be a yogāvasthā. There must be a twilight state beyond wakeful state or sleepy state. 9. Embodiment mapping is unique in yoga. It can be a lofty structure raised up to a high potential.

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Lezione 84

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 7)

Sinossi

Restraint of vrittis-part 7 Abhyāsa-vairagyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ.̍ 1.Effort and endeavour must be on a deeper plane rather than on peripheral plane (jagrut/aniruddha avasthā). 2.Need to have kneaded conditions of body, mind, breath, psyche, consciousness etc. 3.Need to have understanding of esoteric anatomy and physiology. 4.In an appropriate place like a quiet place, certain potential saṁskāras come to surface. Hence, saṁskāras make the substrates of our mind. Need puṇya, pāvitra, dharma saṁskāras. Saṁskāras depend on the svavyaṅjaka-anjaka kārana. 5.Nirodha citta with nirodha pariṇāma. Can happen through saṁskāras. There are vyutthāna and nirodha saṁskāras. Saṁskāras are responsible for diff. states of mind. Nirodha saṁskāras will contribute for nirodha citta. Life-style of yoga thus needs satsanga, sādhanā sanga, s̍āstra sanga to generate nirodha saṁskāras. Yagña, dāna, tapas will purify the mind and trigger as well as enrich the saṁskāras. Āchāra-vichāra, āhāra-vihāra are also saṁskāra-building stones. 6.Vyutthāna saṁskāras are less in proportion to nirodha for the saints and yogis. For common man it is the opposite. Daivi and asuri sampadā. Daivi saṁskāras must be encouraged in our conduct in life. Hence, we do not need to develop yoga; rather, we have to develop saṁskāras. This makes the foundation in classical approach to yoga. 7.Vyasa's aphorisms: “cittanadinām ubhayato vāhini. Vahati kalyānāyā". One part of citta is like a river flowing for our betterment, virtuosity. “Vahati pāpayachā”. The other leads to destruction. Analogy of the flow of the Gangā river. Citta can also become demonic and destructive. 8.We must hence work on our body, breath, mind processes to harvest nirodha saṁskāras. 9.We often blame the object for our responses. eg., anger. The fact is that we become angry because we have the potential for anger. Āsanas are not just physical processes but chaittic processes. 10.Food is not only for body but the subtle aspect of the food turns out mind matter. 11.All the above saṁskār dvelopmment will work for citta saṁskruti.

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Lezione 85

(Restraint of Vruttis Part 8 and concluded)

Sinossi

1.It is paramount to have a plethora of nirodha saṁskāras. Saṁskāras come by birth. Hence, one might think that when the saṁskāras are not in our hands, then it is a matter of destiny. One could become fatalistic. 2.Saṁskāras are maintained in the prāṇamaya kos̍a. Hence we have vāsanās related to all six plexii- the chakras, which are the locii for saṁskāras. Yoga technology and philosophy accesses the prāṇamaya kos̍a and sets right the functions there. Can help to develop nirodha saṁskāras. Abhyāsa and vairāgya potentials are developed. Yoga offers the road map, the qualification as well as the technology. 3.Citta can flow towards kalyāṇa mārga and not papa mārga. Dharma and merits are scored. Vṛttis become, simple, moderate and temperate by viveka of citta. Mind becomes internalised. Real happiness lies inside. Discrimination is dependent upon the self-worldy mind. It gives cultural transfusion. Hence, mānas s̍āstra, dharma s̍āstra, adhyātma, tattvajnana etc have all accepted yoga. 4.Vairāgya is ‘vis̍ayāvin mokhtata', turning one's back to the world of objects. Vairāgya is hence also upheld by all spiritual sciences. Dharma or jñāna sādhanā cannot be done by overlooking vairāgya. 5.Worldly objectives or goals depend on passion dynamics but yoga depends on dispassion dynamics. “tivrasmveganam āssannaha". Vyasa says, then, the tendency to go after objects is enfeebled. 6.One can be on the right track of yoga only when there is abhyāsa and vairāgya potential. That is the test. If you do not feel the need to restrain your mind, if you don't identify a foe in you, in your mind, you will not be motivated to go for yoga. Mostly we take up yoga for physical or mental health. That is not yoga. Even if we get the fruits of our endeavour, as in better physical wellbeing, and we think it is yoga, it is not essential yoga. Yoga is certainly good for abhudaya (material good) as well as nis̍reyas(spiritual good). Aa a kalpa vrksa, yoga will give all aspects; leaves, thorns, bark, sap, root, flowers and fruit. Some persons may be satisfied to get the leaves of bark etc. and may not bother about the fruit.

Video della lezione su YouTube

 


Lezione 86

(Abhyasa, a Means to Besteady the Mind Part 1)

Video della lezione su YouTube

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